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World History World War 2 Unit 12 vocabulary

Albert Einstein
1879-1955. German born theoretical physicist. Best known for his theory of relativity and his theory of energy equivalence. Received Nobel Prize in 1921 for physics.

Freud
(Psychoanalysis) Austrian physician who approached psychology while trying to treat mental disorders–focused on the unconscious

Picasso
A Spanish painter best known for co-founding the Cubist movement and for the wide variety of styles embodied in his work.

Great Depression
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s

Totalitarianism
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Benito Mussolini
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.

Adolf Hitler
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.

Nazism
An extreme form of facism shaped by Hitler’s fanatical ideas about German nationalism and racial superiority

Hirohito
(1901-1989) Emperor of Japan from 1926 until 1989. He is the last Japanese emperor to be considered divine. Led Japan through World War II.

General Tojo
Japanese army officer who initiated the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and who assumed dictatorial control of Japan during World War II

Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Communism
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

Appeasement
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain’s policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.

Munich Pact
An agreement in 1938 that attempted to prevent large-scale war by granting German chancellor Adolf Hitler his demand for control over the Sudetenland, a German-populated region bordering Czechoslovakia

Sudetenland
The area near Czechoslovakia that was mainly German ethnicity that Germany took.

Nazi Soviet nonaggression pact
Hitler and Stalin had secret provisions regarding Poland, finland and baltic republics. They had a treaty of friendship where they wouldnt attack one another, not a military alliance

Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns.

Franklin Roosevelt
President of the US during Great Depression and World War II

Allied Powers
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.

Axis Powers
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.

Holocaust
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

El Alamein
Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria

Stalingrad
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union.

D day
June 6, 1944 – Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

Island hopping
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others

Manhattan Project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.

Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)

Nagasaki
Japanese city devastated during World War II when the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Aug 8th, 1945.

Tehran Conference
First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war

Yalta Conference
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war

Potsdam Conference
July 26, 1945 – Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.

United Nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.

Facism
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and has no tolerance for opposition

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