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Tracking the Evolution of the Internet of Things Concept Across Different Application Domains Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 4 May 2018

Tracking the Evolution of the Internet of Things Concept Across Different Application Domains

ABSTRACT

The state of the internet never stays the same, it changes and evolves with every passing day. The human to human communication is presently the mode of communication on the internet. Thanks to the technology advancement and accommodation of a variety of wireless devices like RFID tags, embedded sensors, and actuator nodes, we have been able to realize a future evaluation of the internet called the Internet of Things (IoT). This is growing to become a revolutionary technology which transforms the internet as we know it today into a completely integrated network of the future. This heterogeneous global network known as the Internet of Things will add several benefits to humans everyday living. Nonetheless, this new growth comes with it new problems – privacy and security – as well. Due to the various standards and mode of interaction that is used in the IoT, regular security primitives cannot be implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show the various security and privacy problems that come with the utilization technology related to the IoT and also highlight some solutions to those issues.

INTRODUCTION
With the adoption and implementation of the IoT, anyone at any location at any time is provided connection to anything at any location and anytime. As technology grows, we draw nearer to a reality where there will be an interaction between everyone and everything (Khan, 2012).
The IoT is regarded as the vision of the internet of the future that carries out the machine to machine learning (Huang and Li, 2010). The basic concept behind the Internet of Things is to grant secure connection and exchange of data automatically, amongst the various devices in the real world and several applications (Fan and Chen, 2010). Many technologies like Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Radio-frequency Identification (RFID), cloud services, machine to machine interfaces, to mention but a few, are the several components which put together makes up the Internet of Things. Furthermore, this paradigm affords a variety of services in the healthcare department, logistics department, environmental monitoring department, to mention but a few.

As times goes by, the number of devices connected to the internet keeps increasing. Majority of mobile devices have different inbuilt sensors and actuators that have the ability to sense, compute, make intelligent decisions and send collected information that is helpful via the internet (Zhou and Zhang, 2011). The IoT is set up with objects, sensor-embedded devices, communication framework, computational and processing systems that may be located on decision-making system (Yu, Wang, and Zhou, 2010). In addition, RFID tags are added to the physical objects so that they can be sensed by smart sensor devices (Li, Huang, and Wang, 2011). Furthermore, information specific to each object is communicated to the processing unit via the internet. Finally, the action to be taken is determined by the decision-making system based on the result gotten from the processing unit.

There is no single approach towards achieving the vision of the IoT as services can be provided in various ways. An application platform which is positioned on the internet to collect information from entities on the data acquisition networks and also to provide raw data and services to other entities is known as the centralized approach. In this approach, there is little to no support to directly reaching the information providers as the entire flow of information is controlled by the application platform. This approach is used by several industrial solutions (Roman, Zhou and Lopez, 2013). Alternatively, another approach where several application platforms are able to work with each other dynamically as well as its knowledge and provision of administration being situated at the edge of the system is known as a distributed approach.

The projection according to (Iqbal, Olaleye, and Bayoumi, 2017) that shows a future of interconnected devices with the aim of providing a smarter, efficient and safer world, raced concerns regarding privacy and security violations among some individuals. It is expected that the wide-scale system of the IoT and its heterogeneity will increase the security threats of the internet as we know it. Furthermore, regular security corrections and privacy policy cannot be practiced on IoT technologies because of its limited computing power; besides, its certain scalability issues will be encountered due to the high number of devices that are connected. In other to achieve user acceptance, it is compulsory to determine a valid security and privacy standard (Sicari et al., 2015). Concerning security of IoT, confidentiality, data anonymity, integrity, authentication, and authorization need to be guaranteed while protection of data and confidentiality of personal information belonging to users need to be ensured for the privacy of IoT. This paper gives an overview of the IoT, highlights various connectivity technologies and devices and provides a detailed description of its security and privacy challenges along with some solutions.

OVERVIEW OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS
In the last couple of years, the internet has grown dramatically, connecting a huge number of things globally. These things vary in sizes, abilities, processing and computational strength and the applications it supports also varies as well (Khan et al., 2012). Hence, the standard internet fuses into the smart future internet known as the Internet of Things (Khan et al., 2012).

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