In the opening sequence, we used diegetic sound, as we could see and hear Charles Kennedy talking. He uses a clear, bold assertive tone of voice, thus attracting the full attention of the viewer. We could also hear everyday sounds in the background- the children laughing and playing – using parallel sound as Kennedy describes how schools can be better with the Liberal Democrats. Within the classroom, everyday sound is included again, with the scraping of chairs and other typical classroom sounds. When Frankie Fawcett’s Father begins to speak, we use diegetic sound once again.
Seeing the face of the speaker makes it more personal, and easier for the viewer to empathise, after seeing how ordinary people can be affected. In the sequence concerning the commuter, we emphasised the awful ordeal of using the rail service by using exaggerated parallel sound. This sound device helps show the viewers how the Labour Party is affecting ordinary, everyday people. The everyday sounds inside the train appeared louder, and there was loud prominent coughing that further outlines the terrible, cramped conditions. We used a few sound bridges, which helped smoothen the link between two scenes.
We felt it unnecessary to use techniques such as contrapuntal sound, as it might have confused the viewers in such a straightforward broadcast. Before I move onto the next section, are there any questions? Okay. Now onto camera shots. A number of different techniques were used during the broadcast to outline certain aspects and messages put out to the viewers. When there was a speaker on screen, we tended to use more mid shots, which feel friendlier, as we thought that maybe close up shots might have given the impression that you’ve no option but to listen to this person.
But by using mid-shots, you can see the speaker as well as seeing what is going on in the background. Charles Kennedy introduces himself whilst in mid shot, and we can relate to what he’s saying by seeing the school children in long shot. In the classroom scene, we use a crane shot, and angle it to further aid the viewers to understand just how crowded the classrooms are. When Kennedy outlines the problem with the rail service, we included a long shot of the train, and also included Kennedy himself, in a mid shot.
In the commuter’s sequence, doing an extreme close up on the watch creates an emphasis on the late time keeping of the trains. Whilst the commuters are inside the train, we used close-ups, to create the feeling of extreme cramped conditions. You will have noticed the shaking of the camera, suggesting the train journey to be bumpy and uncomfortable. You may have noticed that we didn’t use tracking shots, as we wanted to concentrate on the inside of the train. During the University Student sequence, we did a long shot of the two students, and then zoomed in on each one.
On the red student union card, you can see a close up of each of the students’ faces. This makes it easier to see their expressions and feelings towards the situation of whether or not they have to pay tuition fees. At the end, we used a range of different shots to show the celebrations. We used panning shots to show just how many people were joining in on the celebration. Also, using tilt shots to follow the movement of the balloons and fireworks helps develop the celebratory mood. I would now like to move on to which editing techniques we used and why.
Firstly, editing is the way in which shots are joined together, and you may have noticed that the majority of our editing techniques involved straight cuts. This was to keep areas of the broadcast clean and simple, and to minimise confusion. For example, we used a straight cut from the point in which Charles Kennedy introduced himself, to the point that showed the school children sat in the classroom. We thought this was a good choice of editing as the two scenes were related and the straight cut keeps things simple. A dissolve shot may not have been appropriate here, as the viewers may view the next scene as one of a different subject.
We took full advantage of jump cuts within the train. This gives the viewer a clear idea of the discomfort of the journey and the fact that commuting with trains under the Labour government is quite bad. We tended to use jump cuts in areas that portrayed the bad aspects of the Labour rule. We avoided using editing techniques such as dissolve as it was only a 5 minute broadcast and we thought that using this technique would consume too much time, and also be quite confusing as there wasn’t really a relevant place for one anyway.
Other techniques such as wipe cut we found inappropriate for the broadcast, although there was a point in which we used a fade out to black, which signalled a change in subject. If there are no questions, (pause) I should now like to move onto the special effects we used within the broadcast. We used a range of different techniques. Even at the beginning, we did a triple shot that included three different mini screens showing all the different people being affected by the government. This gives the viewers the idea that everyone is affected by the ruling of the government.
And then, at the end, three smaller screens are shown to give the viewer a clear idea of how big the celebration is. We also used the technique of superimposition. For example, within the classroom we superimposed Frankie Fawcett’s Father’s face onto the scene of the classroom. We thought this to be a good use of special effects as it gave a more personal effect, seeing the concerned Father speaking, as well as seeing his daughter in the cramped classroom. It may also give the effect to the viewers that this is affecting everyone, everyday people.
We again used superimposition in the scene that superimposed the university students’ faces onto the student union cards. Also we used special effects to illustrate statistics; numbers and figures associated with, for example, the number of children Labour has in each classroom, compared with the number the Lib Dems will cut class sizes to. You may have noticed that this sort of special effect using graphics was used quite frequently when it came to comparing Labours rule with the possible Lib Dem rule. One example was when we were illustrating the problem with tuition fees.
The statistics were displayed on the screen as bright yellow computerised graphics, whilst the image of the page of a book was shown in the background, which gave relevance to the fact that it relates to education. Moving on from graphics, we used certain effects to give an emphasised impression. For example, in the scene with the school pupils, we cut out about 10 of the pupils to show how the Lib Dems will reduce the class sizes. But to emphasise the feeling of space, you may have noticed that the effect is greater when we take the pupils out from the front of the classroom.
Finally, I would like to talk about the mise en scene, that is, basically, the things such as setting, props, costume and makeup and facial expressions. Inside the classroom full of school pupils, we made sure that they looked hard at work, you may have noticed them talking quietly, sitting with their backs straight. We also made sure that the desks were full of school equipment, to give the room a further emphasised effect of busy-ness. Also the viewers will sympathise for the pupils as they look like they are really trying to cope with the cramped conditions, and still trying to work as hard as they can.
The fact that Charles Kennedy and Mr. Fawcett are seen wearing suits makes clear that this is a serious matter. In the sequence involving the commuter, we told Jill not to wear smart clothes, and you may have noticed her hair flying all over the place and her make up after the journey was pale and bare, giving her a look of ill health. She never smiled during her commute, and she curled her lip whilst getting off the train. We made sure that it was a dull day in order to parallel the somewhat dull commute. In the scene involving the university students, you may have noticed that the students were sat there, talking quietly, drinking water.
This would give the idea that the students are sensible (not drinking beer and bouncing off the walls! ) and consequently deserve the right not to pay tuition fees. And then finally, we see lots of happy body language during the celebrations, clapping and waving. Now, that just about concludes my explanation about the broadcast. Are there any questions before I bid you all farewell? (Answers questions) Okay then! Thank you very much for coming ladies and gentlemen, it has been my pleasure to be able to work with such a broadcast, and I wish you all the best for the upcoming election.