Training is the impartation of skill, competence, know-how or ability to accomplish tasks or a specific one (Heathfield, 2013). Training is also defined as the development of the individual to be able to apply knowledge and skill in accomplishing tasks (Allotey, 2013). In the field of job, training is the impartation of skill, knowledge and ability to undertake one’s job roles or activities relating to one’s job. In this case, training is an avenue used to upgrade or advance the skills and competences of an employee, purposely to improve his or her performance. Training makes it possible to introduce employees to what they do not know or what they know but needs to be mastered by them.
Training in the labour market has many minor objectives. The basic objective for training is however to develop new skills and competences in employees or to upgrade or advance existing skills and competences in them, with the aim of enhancing the performance of employees on their job roles (Heathfield, 2013). Training is a means to introduce employees to safety precautionary measures of their roles (Adiele, 2009). Training enhances organisational image, creates customer satisfaction and boosts productivity. Training is a platform for management to introduce employees to new policies and the approach to specific projects. An organisation can undergo all kinds of training. Training could be domestic, corporate or in-house (Sultana, Irum, Ahmed and Mehmood, 2012). Meanwhile, there are two main categories of training.
The first has to do with training for newly hires or new employees and the second is training for existing (already-employed) workers, which is termed “on-the-job training” (Sultana et al., 2012; Heathfield, 2013). On-the-job training involves the impartation of skills and competences in existing workers or the advancement of these skills and competences (Heathfield, 2013).
The general role is to introduce existing employees to new knowledge, skills and competences so they can perform better on their roles. Sometimes, on-the-job training is undertaken to sharpen skills and competences already possessed by employees and to introduce them to new methods, policies, business projects and activities. On-the-job training is indisputably needed for organisational growth. In fact, the growth of an organisation would be minimal or abysmally low if training is not regularly undertaken to improve the skills and competences of its employees (Cosh, Hughes, Bullock and Potton, 2003).
This is because credible and improved skills and competences are needed to undertake business processes successfully, and employees’ ability to perform on their jobs is what translates into productivity of the organisation. However, the credibility of on-the-job training is influenced by some factors. First, the approach to training must be effective and must be based on a specific role (Cosh et al. 2003). Moreover, management must be adequately committed to make the best of training programmes, and commitment is demonstrated by providing adequate resources for training, carrying out on-the-job training regularly and mitigating challenges that hinder the effectiveness of on-the-job training.
Also, management must be able to monitor the effect of the training programme by measuring the effect of on-the-job training on employee performance and organisational growth. Undoubtedly, the rates at which on-the-job training is implemented in the private and public sectors in Ghana are totally different (Appiah, 2010). Private organisations embark on it more often in a more conscious manner than public sector organisations (Appiah, 2010). To add, private firms are able to invest more resources in the form of time and money on on-the-job training, and this constitutes the reason for which productivity of employees in private organisations always results in a higher corporate growth.
In contrast, public sector organisations organise training programmes less often, with little value and attention placed on the need for on-the-job training. Resources are not made available for it, and these situations have contributed to lower productivity in the public sector. The condition of on-the-job training not being organised or regularly organised is more serious for some public-domain organisations. This is because the growth of some public sector organisations directly affects the welfare or living conditions of Ghanaians. Therefore, their productivities must be vigorously worked towards, monitored and augmented.
The Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA) is one of such public sector organisations. GRA is broadly responsible for the administration of tax or the mobilisation of revenues, which constitutes funds for working out socio-economic development by government. The economic condition and welfare of Ghana and Ghanaians therefore directly depends on the effectiveness and productivity of Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA). To date, Ghana’s tax administration procedure, as developed and managed by Ghana Revenue Authority, is fraught with numerous challenges (Addo, 2013). For instance, there are some individuals and organisations which avoid tax payment without the detection of GRA. There are also situations where some individuals and organisations are overtaxed.
These and other challenges are as a result of strategies, innovations and technologies not known and adopted by employees of GRA (Addo, 2013). It cannot be disputed that regular on-the-job training could fetch management and employees of GRA with these required strategies, innovation and technologies. For Ghana Revenue Authority to take up the habit of regularly undertaking on-the-job training, the role and approach to on-the-job training within the firm must be established, alongside the effect of on-the-job training on employee performance and organisational growth (which establishes the value of on-the-job training). Possible challenges that are associated with on-the-job training must also be revealed alongside their remedies.
This must be achieved through research and it is the basis for developing a lively and active habit of organising on-the-job training in GRA with the purpose of boosting and maximising effectiveness and growth. As mentioned earlier, a lack of skills, competences and strategies for revenue collection has devoided Ghana’s revenue collection approach of robustness.
This has contributed to a lack of on-the-job training programmes for employees. Meanwhile, if suitable research work had produced results about the importance of on-the-job training and showed how the process can be approached economically, the problem would not have existed. Invariably, there has been no fitting research work that indicates the importance and economic approach to on-the-job training in Ghana Revenue Authority. Though similar researches exist, they were not conducted on Ghana Revenue Authority; hence cannot be used to curb the research problem in this case. 1.2 Statement of the Problem
The rate at which on-the-job training programmes are organised in Ghana Revenue Authority is abysmally low, and the situation is fuelled by a lack of knowledge about the value and effect of on-the-job training on employee and total organisational performance. Though training programs are less often organised in public sector organisations relative to private sector organisations, it is obvious that the situation is more alarming in Ghana Revenue Authority. Logically, the phenomenon will negatively affect the productivity and effectiveness of the whole organisation. In this case, the nation’s socio-economic welfare is jeopardised, as Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA) is the means by which revenues are mobilised for the socio-economic development of Ghana.
To add, the fact that on-the-job training programmes are hardly organised in Ghana Revenue Authority has concealed effective skills, competences, potentials, strategies and innovations for revenue mobilisation. No wonder many challenges and drawbacks are still being experienced in the approach to revenue mobilisation in Ghana. Unfortunately, no suitable research has been carried out in this regard. A couple of research such as the research works of Appiah (2010) and Sultana, Irum, Ahmed and Mehmood (2012) exist, but none is related to Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA). There is therefore the need for a more fitting research in this respect. The researchers, hence, were encouraged by this circumstance to undertake this study. 1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to assess the effect of on-the-job training on the job performance of the administrative employees of Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA). 1.4 Objectives of the Study
To assess the effectiveness of the approach to on-the-job training and to find out the policies and principles which underpin it in Ghana Revenue Authority. To analyze existing challenges faced by management in carrying out on-the-job training programs on employees. To ascertain the effect of on-the-job training on employee performance in Ghana Revenue Authority. 1.5 Research Questions
What is the effectiveness of the approach to on-the-job training and what are the policies and principles that underpin it in Ghana Revenue Authority? What are the existing challenges faced by management in carrying out on-the-job training programs on employees, and what are their respective remedies? What is the effect of on-the-job training on employee performance in Ghana Revenue Authority? 1.6 The hypothesis of the Study
The hypothesis of the study based on the above research questions were: Null Hypothesis H0: There is no significant effect of on-the-job training on employee performance in Ghana Revenue Authority. Alternative Hypothesis H1: There is a significant effect of on-the-job training on employee performance in Ghana Revenue Authority. 1.7 Significance of the Study
Undoubtedly, the growth of a corporate institution or any other form of organisation is anchored to the productivity of its employees. This is true even in organisations that heavily use machines and automations, not forgetting that technologies are invented, controlled and managed by people (i.e. employees). The productivity of employees is irrefutably driven by training for employees in the management of every organisation, as training becomes the basis for equipping a workforce with improved, new and/or tailor-made skills and competences.
The need for training of employees makes a parallel with the need to employ appropriate methods and objectives of training that are suitable to the goals and expectations of the organisation. No doubt this study is an avenue to identify such methods and principles needed in on-the-job training for employees. Meanwhile, the following ways illustrate the usefulness of this study: On-the-job training, like many organisational activities, needs to be backed by a purpose or an aim, which is its role.
Without this role, the training process is likely to deviate from the goals and expectations of the organisation. The training process can therefore become abortive. This study provides results that would serve as a blueprint to Ghana Revenue Authority and other suitable organisations regarding how to match on-the-job training to organisational goals, expectations. Making sure that organisational goals, policies and expectations are in line with the objectives of the training program is the foundation of an effective on-the-job training. Some organisations are either alienated from the effective implementation of on-the-job training programs or are incapable of relishing them. The reason is that the organisations either lack effective methods of carrying out on-the-job training program or does not have any training method in place at all.
Luckily, this study comes with standards of on-the-job training program and its underlying principles. The Ghana Revenue Authority would be able to get a clearer sight of its on-the-job training program and relate it to its corporate expectations and goals. This can be an avenue for GRA to improve design of its training programs, considering its goals and expectations. Once the approach to on-the-job training program of GRA is standard, other organisations can use it to improve or adjust theirs. Basically, on-the-job training is carried out so employee productivity can be positively influenced. But a clearer and objective understanding of the relationship between on-the-job training and employee performance can better be reached when the effectiveness of the methods of training is appraised with the challenges and limitations of training.
This study reveals this phenomenon by providing an analytical ground to understand the impact of on-the-job training on employee job performance, considering challenges and limitations to the training process of GRA. Other organisations which want to undergo similar examinations can use this study as a model. Last but not least, the study will serve as a means by which other students and researchers build on this study. In this case, this study becomes an avenue for information on literature, methodology, data analysis and others to be taken and used to undergo similar or related studies. 1.8 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study is explained in terms of population coverage and conceptual or subject areas. In terms of population, the study covered administrative staff of Ghana Revenue Authority at the head office in Accra. In terms of conceptual area, the study was based on three basic areas. The first had to do with the approach to on-the-job training and its underlying principles. Meanwhile, the challenges of on-the-job training and their practical remedies were also uncovered. Finally, the study revealed on-the-job training measures, as well as employee performance measures. The limitations of the study are as follows:
This study has obviously contributed credible findings. Nonetheless, its implementation was fraught with some limitations. Regardless of the fact that these limitations were controlled to avoid their negative influence on the reliability of findings, they are worth mentioning. The first one has to do with the fact that we faced severe financial problems in accomplishing almost all tasks of the research. Thus, funds needed to print questionnaire and reports, ran errands and meet many other expenses of the research were not readily available.
We had to resolve to borrow the needed funds and made sure they were well managed to complete the research. Also, the fact that these funds were not obtained on time somehow delayed some activities of the project. The sample selected was limited to Accra, the head office of Ghana Revenue Authority. As a result of this our scope was limited in terms of coverage of employees of GRA. Another major limitation of the study was the fact that many respondents were not readily accessible, though a schedule was made to meet them on a said date. This resulted in collecting data over a period of five working days instead of two. Some of the respondents too were reluctant to respond. Last but not least, we as a group of researchers, were not well harmonised in terms of the time schedules of each person. As a result, there were many times that meetings were postponed because some members of the group could not make it to the meetings. 1.9 Organization of the Study
The study is organised into five major chapters. The first chapter, Chapter one, includes a background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, significance of the study, research questions and hypotheses and scope and organisation of the study. The second chapter, Chapter two, includes theoretical review of literature and empirical review of literature. The third chapter of the study, Chapter three, presents the study’s methodology. It includes research design, population and sampling techniques, instrumentation, procedure and time frame, statistical analysis and validity and reliability. Chapter four broadly deals with analysis of data based on research objectives and hypotheses. It also comes with a description of results. The fifth chapter, Chapter five, presents a summary, recommendations, limitations and further research work.
The theoretical review covers on-the-job training and social learning theories, the role and importance of on-the-job training, the effectiveness of the approach to on-the-job training, the relationship between on-the-job training and employee performance and the challenges associated with on-the-job training. 2.1.1 Social Learning Theory and the Concept of On-the-Job Training Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies (HRwisdom, 2013; Heathfield, 2013). Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, and performance (Appiah, 2010). It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics).
In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008[update] the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life (HRwisdom, 2013). People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: “training and development” (HRwisdom, 2013). Some examples of these services include career counseling, skill assessment, and supportive services. The literature categorizes such training as on-the-job or off-the-job: On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained (Heathfield, 2013).
On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work. Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas (Cosh et al. 2003). A more recent development in job training is the On-the-Job Training Plan, or OJT Plan. According to the United States Department of the Interior, a proper OJT plan should include; an overview of the subjects to be covered, the number of hours the training is expected to take, an estimated completion date, and a method by which the training will be evaluated.
Job training is linked to the Social Learning Model. Social learning theory is a perspective that states that people learn within a social context (Ormrod, 1999). It is facilitated through concepts such as modeling and observational learning. People, especially children, learn from the environment and seek acceptance from society by learning through influential models. Social learning theory is a perspective that states that social behaviour is learned primarily by observing and imitating the actions of others (Sims and Manz, 1982). The social behavior is also influenced by being rewarded and/or punished for these actions. As mentioned earlier, the social learning model makes a bearing with on-the-job training or any kind of training.
This can be explained with respect to the two main elements of the theory: (1) learning from others and (2) gaining reward and/or punishment for actions learned. In the context of job training, trainees are made to learn from trainers with regards to their job roles – this reflects the first element, “learning from others”. Upon effectively going through training, this may impact positively on their competences and skills, thereby increasing their job performances. With increased performance, compensation or motivation increases for the employee. So there is an element of “reward” in this case. In a situation when training does not impact on the employee, he or she is demoted, withdrawn or there is no change in his or her remuneration – here we see the element of “punishment”. Both situations reflect the “reward/punishment” element of the social learning theory. 2.1.2 The Role and Importance of On-the-Job Training
Training and Development is the framework for helping employees to develop their personal and organisational skills, knowledge, and abilities (Adiele, 2009). The basic aim of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most quality and productive workforce so that the organisation and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers. In view of this, Heathfield (2013) said that the growth of an organisation depends on the quality of skills and competencies developed by employees through on-the-job training.
Employees need to be valuable and remain competitive in the job and labour markets at all times. This can only be achieved through employee training (Adiele, 2009). Employees will always want to develop career-enhancing skills, which will always lead to employee motivation and retention. Undoubtedly, a well-trained and developed staff will be a valuable asset to the company and thereby increasing the chances of his efficiency in discharging his or her duties.
The roles of on-the-job training are elaborated on as follows: To increase job satisfaction and morale among employees: According to Adiele, (2009) and Heathfield (2013), every employee wants to be dynamic and increasingly competent on the labour field. This is mostly as a result of scarcity of job and the potentially low job security conditions of many economies and labour markets. The employee therefore does not waste any opportunity to be trained. Some employees would even independently seek for training to boost their competencies and advance their skills. Therefore, employees acquire a high sense of job satisfaction when they are regularly trained, bearing in mind that their competencies are being revamped to secure their job positions.
To enhance inter personal relationship and customer satisfaction: As explained by Nickels, (2009) and Heathfield (2013), on-the-job training programs are opportunities for employees to get well acquainted with other employees in the organisation. This is because training programmes often come with interactions and exchange of ideas, a situation with creates interpersonal relationships and establishes a basis for teamwork. Training also brings about customer satisfaction. This is as a result of the fact that training enhances the skill and ability of employees to package and deliver products and services to customers. To increase employee motivation: From the viewpoint of Heathfield, (2013), directly or indirectly, on-the-job training is purposed to increase employee motivation. The employee demands his or her skill to be advanced through training. So he or she becomes motivated when the employer or firm makes way for training to be granted him or her.
Directly, on-the-job training enhances skills and competences, which in turn enhances the performance of the employee. As a result, the employee’s motivation in terms of remuneration will increase, bringing the employee a higher sense of motivation. To increase efficiencies in processes for improved financial gain: This has been explained by Adiele, (2009), that the organisation, apart from its routine administrative and business processes, has many projects and processes to run. Be it routine or temporal process of business, increased training would enhance the skill and ability of employees to effectively carry out these processes. Each process is designed to bring the firm financial returns; hence increased ability of the employees to carry out these activities as a result of on-the-job training would promote financial growth of the company.
To increase capacity to adopt new technologies and methods: Adiele, (2009) and Nickels, (2009) revealed that the scene of business is speedily being altered and advanced by technology. For each project and business activity, a new technology may be needed, in which new machines or equipment needs to be installed and operated. On-the-job training equips employees with the new skill of using and operating such new technological devices towards organisational growth. To increase innovation in strategies and products: The business market has become competitive all over the globe. Each day, products and services being managed by firms are innovated to create customer appeal (Heathfield, 2013). On-the-job training ensures that employees are exposed to new strategies for innovation and creativity, which would help the quality and appeal of products and services to be augmented, and this is how businesses tend to defy the negative influences of competition (Adiele, 2009). To reduce employee turnover: On-the-job training enhances skills and competences (Ania, 2011).
Generally, organisational turnover on employees is minimised when employees have sharp competences and skills. Therefore, on-the-job training enhances employee skills and competences for turnover on employees to be minimised (Adiele 2009; Heathfield 2013). To enhance company image: Of the many factors that determine company image, employee competence and quality is one. Employee competence and quality determines quality of services and products as well as the growth of the company (Adiele, 2009). Organisations which have superior products, services and employees have a good image, and in fact quality products and employees are made through on-the-job training (Heathfield, 2013).
For better risk management and staff safety consciousness: from the viewpoints of Adiele, (2009) and Heathfield, (2013), there are risks always associated with the use of certain equipment and gadgets. Safety precautions are therefore expected to be taken by employees. On-the-job training is an avenue to introduce employees to what can be done by them to avoid the risks associated with their job roles and to be conscious to any possible condition of injury. To increase in productivity: As explained by Adiele, (2009) and Heathfield, (2013), on-the-job training is the basis for organisation productivity. This is because employees are the determiners of growth and the level to which they contribute to growth depends on the quality of their competences and skills. On-the-job training is expected to improve skills and competences, which is in turn expected to enhance product/service quality, organisational image, customer patronage and satisfaction. 2.1.3 The Approach and Steps to On-the-Job Training
Heathfield (2013)[ gave twelve (12) ways to embark on on-the-job training. These steps are also backed by Cosh et al. (2003). The following is an elaboration of the steps that constitutes the approach to on the job-training. 1. Mentoring: A mentoring relationship is a win-win for all parties (Heathfield, 2013). Mentoring is also a powerful form of job training and can contribute experience, skills, and wisdom to a mentored employee to increase and expand employee development. Mentoring, whether with the boss or another experienced employee, is key in employee development within the organization (Heathfield, 2013;
Cosh et al. 2003). 2. Periodic In-House Training From Internal or External Resources: If an organization is looking for a way to develop its internal staff that involves an external consultant or even an internal human resource staff, internal job training is an effective way to offer training and build the team at the same time (Heathfield, 2013; Cosh et al. 2003)). Employee development, offered in brief sessions, internally, on a regular basis, allows the organization to do job training with a consultant or internal provider who knows the organization’s goals, language, culture, and workplace norms.
These job training sessions also build the team and help employees develop conversations about improvement, growth, and change. 3. Implement a Book Club at Work: Is the organization looking for an easy way to share information for employee development at work? In this case, it must form a book club in which a group of employees voluntarily reads the same book (Heathfield, 2013). The organization must combine the book reading with a regularly scheduled discussion meeting to double the impact of the book on job training. An appraisal officer can ask one employee to lead the discussion about the week’s assigned chapter or two. Then ask a second employee to lead the discussion about the relevance of the book’s teachings to your organization.
4. Require Employees Who Attend External Training to Do Job Training: When an employee attends an external seminar, training session, or conference, establishes a company norm that the employee is expected to magnify the experience for the company by training other employees (Cosh et al. 2003). This is effective employee development because it introduces new ideas in the organization. It is cost-effective in that the attending employee provides employee development for other employees. These presentations promote employee development, the promulgation of new ideas, and extend job training knowledge (Healthfield 2013; Cosh et al. 2003).
The requirement also develops the skills of the employee who attended the external event. 5. Promotion: A promotion is a powerful form of job training (Heathfield, 2013). A promotion forces an employee to grow or decline in performance. With appropriate mentoring and coaching, a promotion is a positive form of employee development. For job training, a promotion is stretching and fulfilling. 6. Transfer: A transfer is an approach to employee development that also helps employees create a career path (Cosh et al. 2003). A transfer provides experience in other areas of an employee’s current department or in a new department within the business.
This job training widens the employee’s horizons and enables the employee to gain wider and broader experience within the business (Heathfield, 2013). A transfer provides effective job training. 7. Lateral Move: In a lateral move, an employee moves to an equivalent role in an organization for job training and career development (Cosh et al. 2003). Though the new role usually provides a similar salary range and a job title at the same level, lateral moves are critical for employee development. In a lateral move, the employee’s job responsibilities change thus affording the employee job training and new opportunities. 8. Hold Brown Bag Lunches: According to Heathfield, (2013), brown bag lunches or lunch and learns, as they are frequently called, is another form of employee development, available internally.
A brown bag lunch is an informal opportunity for employees to learn at work. A brown bag lunch is used to convey work information occasionally, but mostly serves to enhance employee knowledge about non-work or job specific issues and ideas. Whether about work or work-life topics, brown bag lunches provide employees with information they need to create great lives. The organization must use brown bag lunches, or buy lunch for the employees, to spotlight projects and initiatives within it. The organization must provide job training that enhances employee knowledge of its field, industry, competition or customers. Or, just help employees manage work life balance and their individual needs within their everyday lives. Regardless of topic, brown bag lunches, or lunch and learns, enhance employee development and their commitment to your business.
9. On-the-Job Training: this is normally emphasized for job training for any new employee. Whether structured, with written processes and procedures, or informal, the power of on-the-job training for employee development cannot be overemphasized. Early and timely job training ensures that the employee will perform his or her job effectively. Competence builds employee morale and motivation and ensures employee commitment and retention (Cosh et al. 2003). Employee on-boarding or new employee orientation is also critical in this job training mix (Heathfield, 2013).
The organization can also produce internal job training videos and other resources that allow employees unlimited access to job training. 10. Coaching: Executives, managers, and others interested in career growth and employee development increasingly turn to a business coach, either internal or external, for a personally tailored development process for themselves or reporting employees (Heathfield, 2013; Cosh et al. 2003). Coaching from a boss or other interested manager is always useful job training.
Coaching is also a different delivery system for training, since training, especially with long term managers and people who are further along in their careers, is not working. The coach works with the manager to tailor the job training program in skill areas that need an impact. It may be defined as an informal, unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisors and peers. In coaching, the supervisor explains things and answers questions; he throws light on why things are done the way they are; he offers a model for trainees to copy; conducts many decision-making meetings with trainees; procedures are agreed upon and the trainee is given enough authority to make divisions and even commit mistakes (Heathfield, 2013). Coaching is confidential – a series of one-on-one meetings for a minimum of four hours a month, focusing on the goal of the client.
This goal could be: fine tuning a skill; accelerated learning; solving a problem; developing peak performance; strategic planning; creating change or growing with change; working through something you are stuck on; and identifying and gaining clarity on your goals (Heathfield, 2013). 11. Job Shadowing: This allows an employee to learn about and benefit from brief stints of job training while the employee observes and participates in the work of another employee. Job shadowing, whether for a day, a month, or some other period of specified time is a little used form of employee development (Cosh et al. 2003). Used by colleges and universities, along with internships for student career exploration, job shadowing can provide job training as well. Job shadowing is also an excellent approach to the job training of employees who provide back-up for jobs such as payroll (Heathfield, 2013).
Job shadowing is also perfect for an employee with an interim assignment resulting from an employee termination. 12. Provide Internet, Intranet, and Webinar Training Classes and Resources: If the organisation is not providing online training in your wiki or Intranet or other online employee resource, its employees are missing a golden opportunity for employee development (Heathfield, 2013). Portions of employee on-boarding, access to company and departmental information, are better accessed online. Everything that any employee needs to know about the company should be accessible to employees online. 2.1.4 Evaluation of on-the-job training
To establish the effectiveness of the program and areas for further development there is the need to know whether the results are in accordance with the desired outcomes or not. It also considers whether the training program was conducted or implemented according to plan. Evaluation helps the trainer to know whether any particular employee needs further training to perform his/her job.
Kirkpatrick (2005) has proposed a four level model to evaluate effectiveness of training. His model has been used widely among firms throughout the world. This model helps firms to see how effective their training was, and what could be the results of that particular training provided by the firms to their employees. These four levels suggested by (Kirkpatrick, 2005) are: reactions, learning, behaviour, results. Reactions: reaction evaluation is how the delegates felt about the training or learning experience.
That is, how motivated the delegates are to learn and perform. Learning: learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge – before and after the learning experience. Thus, did they learn the needed skills and/or use the resources they were given? Behaviour: behaviour evaluation is the extent of applied learning back on the job implementation. That is, did they really transfer their skills to the workplace? Results: results evaluation is the effect on the business or environment by the trainee. Thus, is the desired impact being felt? Levine (2005) in his book On-the-Job Training, described OJT as one of the oldest forms of training. He stated that OJT was born when the first parent took his/her child aside and said, “Let me show you how to do that”.
He added that, OJT at its most fundamental level can be defined as two people working closely together so one person can learn from the other. Whether, the person teaching is called trainer, mentor or guide, the function is the same – to teach the student so that he or she can correctly and safely perform a task. Value Alignment Solutions. Com’s glossary of terms and definitions, defined OJT as employee training at the place of work while he or she is doing the actual job. Usually a professional trainer (or sometimes an experienced employee) serves as the course instructor, and employs the principles of learning (participation, repetition, relevance, transference, and feedback) often supported by formal classroom training.
From the above, OJT can be performed only if there are two or more people involved with one person being the giver of knowledge, teacher, trainer, supervisor and the other the receiver of knowledge, learner, student etc. The realization here is that both parties must be willing to share something they have ‘inside’. What comes to mind is, what if, the supervisor feels threatened because of the way the trainee captures everything so fast? In other words, the trainee is a fast learner and therefore, the supervisor refuses to teach or transfer knowledge for the fear of being ‘overtaken’ in his position. 2.1.5 Effect of OJT on employee output
OJT has varied effects on employee output, among which include 1) operational efficiency, 2) low worker’s stress, 3) product quality. Operational Efficiency: This is chieved when the right combination of
people, process, and technology come together to enhance the productivity and value of any business operation, while driving down the cost of routine operations to a desired level. The result is that resources previously needed to manage operational tasks can be redirected to new, high value initiatives that bring additional capabilities to the organization. Stress level, pressures and anxiety that come with the job minimized. Improved quality: Employees improve their professional skills. This serves the production process and the unit production since quality is controlled in such a way. 2.1.6 Employee Performance