Since 1900

Recorded music was not available until 1897 with the invention of the
78 rpm disk

A counter-reaction to modernism that drew on more traditional uses of the elements was
neoclassicism

In Voiles, Debussy employs both the
whole tone and pentatonic scales

The climax of Voiles is achieved by a shift in
dynamics

The sounds Debussy uses in Voiles reflects the
globalization of music during the twentieth century

Debussy disliked the term
impressionism

Debussy was one of several early twentieth-century composers rebelling against what musical convention?
tonality

The first performance of “The Unanswered Question” took place how long after its completion?
almost 40 years

In “The Unanswered Question,” which instrument(s) ask(s) the question?
trumpet

In addition to the metaphysical debate of the piece, the contrasts between the different instrument groups could also represent
the conflict between old and new music

Which of these things sets “The Unanswered Question” apart from the other musical dialogues, such as concertos?
one group of instruments ignores the dialigue

Ives thought of conventional, pre-modernist music as a(n)
narcotic that dulled the senses

Which of the stanzas of poetry seems most expressionistic?
Heavy, gloomy giant black moths
Massacred the sun’s bright rays;
Like a close-shut magic book
Broods the distant sky in silence.

How does Sprechstimme differ from recitative?
In Sprechstimme, the voice does not maintain the pitch on each note

What kind of harmonic system does Schoenberg use in “Columbine”?
atonal

In an atonal work, what term still apply?
rhythm

The atonality of “Peirrot lunaire” helps to depict Pierrot’s
anguish, despair, and complete alienation

polytonal
When a piece of music has two simultaneous tonal centers

A pentatonic scale has
five notes

A rhythmic figure or gesture that is repeated many times is a(n)
ostinato

Meter is said to be irregular when
it changes frequently from measure to measure

Diaghilev had trouble reviving “The Rite of Spring” in 1920 because
the orchestra was so big

How did Crawford develop her compositional skills?
she imposed strict limitations on her compositions

Ruth Crawford’s music is an example of
modernism

Crawford created “mixed accents” by
varying the number of notes per group

Which traditional element of Western music was deliberately left out of “Piano Study in Mixed Accents”?
harmony

Crawford gives her piece shape by changing what melodic element?
register

Neoclassical music combines modern ideas with the form and content of
eighteenth-century music

In the context of harp technique, a glissando is a
scale played so fast it becomes a blur

The timbre of neoclassical music is frequently
light and transparent

In the finale of her “Concertino for Harp and Orchestra”, how does Tailleferre use the wind instruments?
as soloists, one at a time

Tailleferre was part of a group of composers who referred to themselves as
Les Six

Like Schoenberg’s Peirrot, Still’s version of the character conveys
insecurity and quiet desperation

African American artists of the 1920s and 1930s like William Grant Still and Langston Hughes use art to
promote racial equality

In order to reflect the character’s state of mind, Still incorporates elements of
the blues

Why is “A Black Pierrot” considered through-composed?
the music is different in each strophe

How does the emotional climax of “A Black Pierrot” occur?
the singer reaches his highest note

How does Copland compose to get the “wide open spaces” sound for which he is famous?
using both very high and very low notes

Which is a rhythmic element that Copland uses throughout “Hoe-Down” from Rodeo?
syncopation

How does Copland create contrasting timbres in his “Hoe-Down”?
by alternating between a full orchestra and small groups

Who transcribed (i.e., wrote down in musical notation) the folk melody that Copland used in the A sections of “Hoe-Down” from Rodeo?
Ruth Crawford Seeger

Compared to the typical rondo form, what is unusual about the rondo form of Copland’s “Hoe-Down” from Rodeo?
the main melody is not played until the second A section

Bartok’s “Concerto for Orchestra differs from earlier concertos in that it
showcases many different instruments rather than one

While he lived in the US, Bartok
was admired by a small community, but relatively unknown

What makes melody no. 5 (in the muted trumpets) sound slightly menacing?
it is harmonized in seconds

Bartok also worked within which academic discipline as a folk-song collector?
ethnomusicalogy

Why does Bartok call this movement “Game of Pairs”?
the wind instruments function in pairs

West Side Story is a modern retelling of
Romeo and Juliet

Which of the following best characterizes the genre of the musical?
spoken dialogue with substantial amounts of singing

How did Bernstein reflect the fact that the action is progressing in the music?
the melodies of the various groups begin to overlap

Additive form is a device Bernstein adapted from
opera

The texture of “Tonight” is
homophonic, then polyphonic

Although “Tonight” starts as a chorus, it ends as a
quintet

Although radical in many ways, “Sonata II” does have a relatively conventional
form

The sound of the prepared piano
is completely unfamiliar to most audiences

What statement best describes Cage’s philosophy of music?
everything in the world around us is music

Which aspect of Zen Buddhism especially influenced Cage’s compositions?
the attempt to eliminate personal will and striving for goals

Cage wrote 4’33” because he wanted his audience to
think about why some sounds are considered music and others are not

In the opera “Einstein on the Beach”, the character of Einstein
never sings, but plays the violin

Minimalism is characterized by
brief ideas repeating and varying incrementally over a long span of time

Glass wanted the audience of “Einstein on the Beach” to
read their own meaning into the work

The harmony of “Knee Play 1” is
very simple tonality

What is one way Glass creates variety in the choral parts of this piece?
sometimes they leave out the number “1”

Philip Glass has studied in these following places
1) Peabody Conservatory
2) India
3) Paris

In “A la Par”, Leon says she is attempting to express the conflict between
her native folk-music traditions and her classical training

What is a pitched percussion instrument?
bongo

“A la Par” is written for
percussion ensemble

The rhythmic ostinato in “Guaguanco” is
chromatic, but squarely tonal

The postmodernist musical aesthetic differs from neoclassicism in that it
accepts the extremes of modernism

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