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Research – the History of the Atomic Bomb

1. Subject: What is the Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project

Even before the outbreak of war in 1939, a group of American scientists-many of them refugees from fascist regimes in Europe-became concerned with nuclear weapons research being conducted in Nazi Germany. In 1940, the U.S. government began funding its own atomic weapons development program, which came under the joint responsibility of the Office of Scientific Research and Development and the War Department after the U.S. entry into World War II. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was tasked with spearheading the construction of the vast facilities necessary for the top-secret program, codenamed “The Manhattan Project ” (for the engineering corps’ Manhattan district).

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki

Article Details:
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Author

History.com Staff
Website Name
History.com
Year Published
2009
Title
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
URL
http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki
Access Date
March 26, 2015
Publisher
A+E Networks

“Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

2. Subject: First use of the atomic bomb – Japan bombing

Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
On August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the city and immediately killed 80,000 people; tens of thousands more would later die of radiation exposure. Three days later, a second B-29 dropped another A-bomb on Nagasaki, killing an estimated 40,000 people. Japan’s Emperor Hirohito announced his country’s unconditional surrender in World War II in a radio address on August 15, citing the devastating power of “a new and most cruel bomb.”

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki

Article Details:
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Author
History.com Staff
Website Name
History.com
Year Published
2009
Title
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
URL
http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki
Access Date
March 26, 2015
Publisher
A+E Networks

“Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

3. Was it necessary to use the atomic bomb on Japan?

General Douglas MacArthur and other top military commanders favored continuing the conventional bombing of Japan already in effect and following up with a massive invasion, codenamed “Operation Downfall.” They advised Truman that such an invasion would result in U.S. casualties of up to 1 million. In order to avoid such a high casualty rate, Truman decided-over the moral reservations of Secretary of War Henry Stimson, General Dwight Eisenhower and a number of the Manhattan Project scientists-to use the atomic bomb in the hopes of bringing the war to a quick end.

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki

Article Details:
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Author
History.com Staff
Website Name
History.com
Year Published
2009
Title
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
URL
http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki
Access Date
March 26, 2015
Publisher
A+E Networks

“Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

1. Subject: What is the Manhattan Project

Over the next several years, the program’s scientists worked on producing the key materials for nuclear fission-uranium-235 and plutonium (Pu-239). They sent them to Los Alamos, New Mexico, where a team led by J. Robert Oppenheimer worked to turn these materials into a workable atomic bomb. Early on the morning of July 16, 1945, the Manhattan Project held its first successful test of an atomic device-a plutonium bomb-at the Trinity test site at Alamogordo, New Mexico.

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki

Article Details:
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Author
History.com Staff
Website Name
History.com
Year Published
2009
Title
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
URL
http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki
Access Date
March 26, 2015
Publisher
A+E Networks

“Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

2. Subject: First use of the atomic bomb – Japan bombing

Hiroshima, a manufacturing center of some 350,000 people located about 500 miles from Tokyo, was selected as the first target. After arriving at the U.S. base on the Pacific island of Tinian, the more than 9,000-pound uranium-235 bomb was loaded aboard a modified B-29 bomber christened Enola Gay (after the mother of its pilot, Colonel Paul Tibbets). The plane dropped the bomb-known as “Little Boy”-by parachute at 8:15 in the morning, and it exploded 2,000 feet above Hiroshima in a blast equal to 12-15,000 tons of TNT, destroying five square miles of the city.

Hiroshima’s devastation failed to elicit immediate Japanese surrender, however, and on August 9 Major Charles Sweeney flew another B-29 bomber, Bockscar, from Tinian. Thick clouds over the primary target, the city of Kokura, drove Sweeney to a secondary target, Nagasaki, where the plutonium bomb “Fat Man” was dropped at 11:02 that morning. More powerful than the one used at Hiroshima, the bomb weighed nearly 10,000 pounds and was built to produce a 22-kiloton blast. The topography of Nagasaki, which was nestled in narrow valleys between mountains, reduced the bomb’s effect, limiting the destruction to 2.6 square miles.

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki

Article Details:
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Author
History.com Staff
Website Name
History.com
Year Published
2009
Title
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
URL
http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki
Access Date
March 26, 2015
Publisher
A+E Networks

“Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

4. Truman speaks after first bombing

Truman Threatens Japan With Atomic Attacks
(1 min) tv-pg (this is the audio version of it)

In his radio address to the American people, on August 9, 1945, President Harry Truman speaks about the Hiroshima bombing, and reasserts his threat to use additional atomic bombs against Japan until it surrenders.

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/bombing-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki/speeches

“Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

3. Was it necessary to use the atomic bomb on Japan?

51g. The Decision to Drop the Bomb

American soldiers and civilians were weary from four years of war, yet the Japanese military was refusing to give up their fight. American forces occupied Okinawa and Iwo Jima and were intensely fire bombing Japanese cities. But Japan had an army of 2 million strong stationed in the home islands guarding against invasion.

First, an Allied demand for an immediate unconditional surrender was made to the leadership in Japan. Although the demand stated that refusal would result in total destruction, no mention of any new weapons of mass destruction was made. The Japanese military command rejected the request for unconditional surrender, but there were indications that a conditional surrender was possible.

Critics have charged that Truman’s decision was a barbaric act that brought negative long-term consequences to the United States. A new age of nuclear terror led to a dangerous arms race.

Some military analysts insist that Japan was on its knees and the bombings were simply unnecessary. The American government was accused of racism on the grounds that such a device would never have been used against white civilians.

Other critics argued that American diplomats had ulterior motives. The Soviet Union had entered the war against Japan, and the atomic bomb could be read as a strong message for the Soviets to tread lightly. In this respect, Hiroshima and Nagasaki may have been the first shots of the Cold War as well as the final shots of World War II. Regardless, the United States remains the only nation in the world to have used a nuclear weapon on another nation.

Truman stated that his decision to drop the bomb was purely military.

Over 3,500 Japanese kamikaze raids had already wrought great destruction and loss of American lives.

The President rejected a demonstration of the atomic bomb to the Japanese leadership. He knew there was no guarantee the Japanese would surrender if the test succeeded, and he felt that a failed demonstration would be worse than none at all.

http://www.ushistory.org/us/51g.asp

Cite This Page

For bibliography reference, please include the following information:
AUTHOR ushistory.org
TITLE OF PAGE The Decision to Drop the Bomb
TITLE OF PROGRAM U.S. History Online Textbook
URL OF PAGE http://www.ushistory.org/us/51g.asp
DATE OF ACCESS Thursday, March 26, 2015
COPYRIGHT 2015

“The Decision to Drop the Bomb.” Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

1. Subject: What is the Manhattan Project

Early in 1939, the world’s scientific community discovered that German physicists had learned the secrets of splitting a uranium atom.

Scientists Albert Einstein, who fled Nazi persecution, and Enrico Fermi, who escaped Fascist Italy, were now living in the United States. They agreed that the President must be informed of the dangers of atomic technology in the hands of the Axis powers. Fermi traveled to Washington in March to express his concerns on government officials. But few shared his uneasiness.

Einstein penned a letter to President Roosevelt urging the development of an atomic research program later that year. Roosevelt saw neither the necessity nor the utility for such a project, but agreed to proceed slowly. In late 1941, the American effort to design and build an atomic bomb received its code name — the Manhattan Project.

After the final bill was tallied, nearly $2 billion had been spent on research and development of the atomic bomb. The Manhattan Project employed over 120,000 Americans.

Secrecy was paramount. Neither the Germans nor the Japanese could learn of the project. Roosevelt and Churchill also agreed that the Stalin would be kept in the dark. Consequently, there was no public awareness or debate. Keeping 120,000 people quiet would be impossible; therefore only a small privileged cadre of inner scientists and officials knew about the atomic bomb’s development. In fact, Vice-President Truman had never heard of the Manhattan Project until he became President Truman.

Although the Axis powers remained unaware of the efforts at Los Alamos, American leaders later learned that a Soviet spy named Klaus Fuchs had penetrated the inner circle of scientists.

By the summer of 1945, Oppenheimer was ready to test the first bomb. On July 16, 1945, at Trinity Site near Alamogordo, New Mexico, scientists of the Manhattan Project readied themselves to watch the detonation of the world’s first atomic bomb. The device was affixed to a 100-foot tower and discharged just before dawn. No one was properly prepared for the result.

A blinding flash visible for 200 miles lit up the morning sky. A mushroom cloud reached 40,000 feet, blowing out windows of civilian homes up to 100 miles away. When the cloud returned to earth it created a half-mile wide crater metamorphosing sand into glass. A bogus cover-up story was quickly released, explaining that a huge ammunition dump had just exploded in the desert.

http://www.ushistory.org/us/51f.asp

Cite This Page

For bibliography reference, please include the following information:
AUTHOR ushistory.org
TITLE OF PAGE The Manhattan Project
TITLE OF PROGRAM U.S. History Online Textbook
URL OF PAGE http://www.ushistory.org/us/51f.asp
DATE OF ACCESS Thursday, March 26, 2015
COPYRIGHT 2015

“The Manhattan Project.” Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

4. Truman speaks after first bombing

***This is the press release issued after the first bombing (some excerpts)

White House Press Release on Hiroshima
Statement by the President of the United States

(first three paragraphs of statement:)
Sixteen hours ago an American airplane dropped one bomb on Hiroshima, an important Japanese Army base. That bomb had more power than 20,000 tons of T.N.T. It had more than two thousand times the blast power of the British “Grand Slam” which is the largest bomb ever yet used in the history of warfare.

The Japanese began the war from the air at Pearl Harbor. They have been repaid many fold. And the end is not yet. With this bomb we have now added a new and revolutionary increase in destruction to supplement the growing power of our armed forces. In their present form these bombs are now in production and even more powerful forms are in development.

It is an atomic bomb. It is a harnessing of the basic power of the universe. The force from which the sun draws its power has been loosed against those who brought war to the Far East.

(two more paragraphs)
We are now prepared to obliterate more rapidly and completely every productive enterprise the Japanese have above ground in any city. We shall destroy their docks, their factories, and their communications. Let there be no mistake; we shall completely destroy Japan’s power to make war.

It was to spare the Japanese people from utter destruction that the ultimatum of July 26 was issued at Potsdam. Their leaders promptly rejected that ultimatum. If they do not now accept our terms they may expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth. Behind this air attack will follow sea and land forces in such numbers and power as they have not yet seen and with the fighting skill of which they are already well aware.

***Note to self: there is a letter that Truman writes after the bombing that I did not feel was needed for the research paper. It is also located at the atomicarchive website. It just restates why he made the order (his reasoning).

White House Press Release on Hiroshima
Statement by the President of the United States

http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Hiroshima/PRHiroshima.shtml

© Copyright 1998-2015 AJ Software & Multimedia All Rights Reserved

About The Site

This website was created for students, educators, and the general public to understand the science, history and consequences of the atomic age. It serves as an online companion to the award winning CD-ROM, Atomic Archive:Enhanced Edition.

We wanted to bring forward a large collection of digital assets, such as original texts, eyewitness accounts, rare photographs, videos and full color maps. This site is a member of the Nuclear Pathways project, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation’s National Science Digital Library effort. Nuclear Pathways’ goal makes information on historic and current nuclear issues more accessible and comprehensible to the public, educators, and students from middle school through graduate programs.
About The Creators

This site was built by AJ Software & Multimedia, the team that runs atomicarchive.com, a leading website on the science, history and consequences of the atomic age.

AJ Software & Multimedia is a small web design studio located in San Diego, California and founded by Chris Griffith. Over the years, we have developed a variety of multimedia products for such clients as Presto Studios, Blue Byte, Interplay, Bandai Entertainment and Performance Digital Laboratories. Learn more about past projects, or get in touch with us to discuss how we can work with you, creating engaging websites.
Credits

Producer/Technical Lead: Chris Griffith
Editor/Writer: Carrie Rossenfeld
Content Expert: Chris Griffith

Some content was originally from Argonne National Laboratory, White Sands Missile Range Public Affairs, Department of Energy: Office of History and Heritage Resources, nuclearweaponarchive.org, and the National Resources Defense Council. Used by permission.

5. Einstein’s Involvement

On My Participation In The Atom Bomb Project by A. Einstein
—this was written on top of the essay:
In response to the editor of Kaizo, Einstein wrote this short essay to describe his limited involvement in the development of the atomic bomb. Einstein stated that his participation consisted of “a single act” – signing the 1939 letter to President Roosevelt. “I did not see any other way out, although I always was a convinced pacifist.” The essay appeared in a special edition of Kaizo published in 1952.)

(below is the entire essay)
My participation in the production of the atom bomb consisted in a single act: I signed a letter to President Roosevelt. this letter stressed the necessity of large scale experimentation to ascertain the possibility of producing an atom bomb.

I was well aware of the dreadful danger for all mankind, if these experiments would succeed. But the probability that the Germans might work on that very problem with good chance of success prompted me to take that step. I did not see any other way out, although I always was a convinced pacifist. To kill in war time, it seems to me, is in no ways better than common murder.

As long however, as nations are ready to abolish war by common action and to solve their conflicts in a peaceful way on a legal basis. they feel compelled to prepare for war. They feel moreover compelled to prepare the most abominable means, in order not to be left behind in the general armaments race. Such procedure leads inevitable to war, which, in turn, under todays conditions, spells universal destruction.

Under such circumstances there is no hope in combating the production of specific weapons or means of destruction. Only radical abolition of war and of danger of war can help. Toward this goal one should strive; in fact nobody should allow himself to be forced into actions contrary to this goal. This is a harsh demand for anyone who is aware of his social inter-relatedness; but it can be followed.

Gandhi, the greatest political genius of our time has shown the way, and has demonstrated the sacrifices man is willing to bring if only he has found the right way. His work for the liberation of India is a living example that man’s will, sustained by an indomitable conviction is stronger than apparently invincible material power.

http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Hiroshima/EinsteinResponse.shtml

4. Truman speaks after bombing

***more text from Truman press release after bombing
(last three paragraphs)
The fact that we can release atomic energy ushers in a new era in man’s understanding of nature’s forces. Atomic energy may in the future supplement the power that now comes from coal, oil, and falling water, but at present it cannot be produced on a basis to compete with them commercially. Before that comes there must be a long period of intensive research.

It has never been the habit of the scientists of this country or the policy of the Government to withhold from the world scientific knowledge. Normally, therefore, everything about the work with atomic energy would be made public.

But under present circumstances it is not intended to divulge the technical processes of production or all the military applications, pending further examination of possible methods of protecting us and the rest of the world from the danger of sudden destruction. I shall recommend that the Congress of the United States consider promptly the establishment of an appropriate commission to control the production and use of atomic power within the United States. I shall give further consideration and make further recommendations to the Congress as to how atomic power can become a powerful and forceful influence towards the maintenance of world peace.

http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Hiroshima/PRHiroshima.shtml

© Copyright 1998-2015 AJ Software & Multimedia All Rights Reserved

About The Site

This website was created for students, educators, and the general public to understand the science, history and consequences of the atomic age. It serves as an online companion to the award winning CD-ROM, Atomic Archive:Enhanced Edition.

We wanted to bring forward a large collection of digital assets, such as original texts, eyewitness accounts, rare photographs, videos and full color maps. This site is a member of the Nuclear Pathways project, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation’s National Science Digital Library effort. Nuclear Pathways’ goal makes information on historic and current nuclear issues more accessible and comprehensible to the public, educators, and students from middle school through graduate programs.
About The Creators

This site was built by AJ Software & Multimedia, the team that runs atomicarchive.com, a leading website on the science, history and consequences of the atomic age.

AJ Software & Multimedia is a small web design studio located in San Diego, California and founded by Chris Griffith. Over the years, we have developed a variety of multimedia products for such clients as Presto Studios, Blue Byte, Interplay, Bandai Entertainment and Performance Digital Laboratories. Learn more about past projects, or get in touch with us to discuss how we can work with you, creating engaging websites.
Credits

Producer/Technical Lead: Chris Griffith
Editor/Writer: Carrie Rossenfeld
Content Expert: Chris Griffith

Some content was originally from Argonne National Laboratory, White Sands Missile Range Public Affairs, Department of Energy: Office of History and Heritage Resources, nuclearweaponarchive.org, and the National Resources Defense Council. Used by permission.

6: Subject: Before the bomb

In 1914, novelist H.G. Wells envisioned an atomic bomb that would produce a continual radioactive explosion in The World Set Free. (italiciize title)

Same page…

For Hungarian physicist Leo Szilard, the novel triggered his fascination with unleashing the energy within an atom. In 1933 while crossing the street in London, Szilard realized the possibility of a nuclear chain reaction.

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

**need page numbers

page 17

6: Subject: Before the bomb

Five years later, scientists still did not know which elements would create a chain reaction. Then by accident, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann were able to split apart uranium atoms in Nazi Germany on December 21, 1938. Within weeks, Lise Meitner and her nephew Otto Frisch explained this physical phenomenon as “fission” of the uranium nucleus.

….

The race to develop an atomic bomb had begun.

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

**need page numbers

page 17

6: Subject: Before the bomb

In 1914, H..G. Wells published a science fiction novel that envisioned an atomic bomb for the first time.
—The World Set Free

Well’s fictional bomb differed from the real one, but the moral and ethical concerns he posed anticipated those that mankind soon had to confront.

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

**need page numbers

page 22

7. Manhattan Project Chronology

begins 1899

Page 462
September 1, 1939
Nazi Germany invades Poland, starting World War II.

Page 462
December 7, 1941
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.
December 8, 1941
The United States Congress declared war on Japan.
January 19, 1942
President Roosevelt approves the production of an atomic bomb.

Page 462
September 17, 1942
Col. Leslie R. Groves takes over command of the Manhattan Engineer District

Page 463
September 19, 1942
Groves selects Oak Ridge, TN as the site for the pilot plant.
October 19, 1942
Groves decides to establish a separate scientific laboratory to design the atomic bomb.
November 25, 1942
Groves selects Los Alamos, NM as the site for a scientific research laboratory, codenamed “Project Y.” J. Robert Oppenheimer is chosen as laboratory director.
January 16, 1943
Groves select Hanford, WA as a site for plutonium production.

Page 464
September 27, 1944
100B reactor goes critical, producing plutonium at Hanford shortly after the chain reaction halted due to xenon-135 “poisoning,” which required design modifications.
February 2, 1945
Los Alamos receives its first plutonium from Hanford
April 12, 1945
Franklin D. Roosevelt dies. Harry S. Truman becomes President.
July 16, 1945
Trinity Test, a plutonium implosion bomb and the first nuclear explosion, is successfully conducted in Alamogordo, New Mexico.

Page 465
July 21, 1945
Truman approves order for the use of atomic bombs.
August 14, 1945
Japan surrenders.

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

**need page numbers

page 461-465 (Manhattan Project Chronology)

6: Subject: Before the bomb

Science began emerging with Thales of Miletus (634-546 BC), the Ionian Greek, who described the power of attraction in electricity long before electricity was known.

Democritus (460-370 BC), a Greek philosopher was called the “father of the atom.” Although he had no experimental evidence to support him, Democritus argued that all matter must consist of a number of fundamental pieces. He called these pieces “atoms” for the Greek word “atomon,” which actually means indivisible. In 79 BC, the Roman poet-philosopher Titus Lucretius (98-55 BC) developed atomic theory.

http://www.atomcentral.com/

http://www.atomcentral.com/atom-bomb-history.aspx

History leading to the creation of the atomic bomb

“History Leading to the Creation of the Atomic Bomb.” History of the Atom Bomb. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

6: Subject: Before the bomb

After the downfall of the Roman Empire and thoughout the Middle Ages, the theory of the atomic view of matter was almost lost. Then, the seventeenth century brought the age of Galileo. Galilei Galileo (1564-1642), through his observations of falling objects and controlled experiments is regarded as the father of modern physics. The eighteenth century produced Sir Isaac Newton, with his physical laws. Man’s conception of the universe around him was changing.

John Dalton (1755-1844), an English chemist, developed the first useful atomic theory of matter around 1803. Amedeo Avogadro (1776-1856), the Italian chemist, who in 1811, published an article drawing the distinction between the atom and the molecule which is now know as “Avogadro’s Principle.” Jons Berzelius (1779-1848), a Swedish analytical genius and disciple of Dalton who undertook the measurement of atomic weights.

http://www.atomcentral.com/

http://www.atomcentral.com/atom-bomb-history.aspx

History leading to the creation of the atomic bomb

“History Leading to the Creation of the Atomic Bomb.” History of the Atom Bomb. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

6: Subject: Before the bomb

Michael Faraday (1791-1867), a great proponent of experimental science, laying the foundation of electro-technology. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), a scottish physicist, stated that atoms were the foundation stones of the universe. Lord Kelvin (1824-1907), a practical English genius, who systematized knowledge of mechanics, electricity, and heat in formation of the laws of energy. Dimitri Mendeleef (1834-1907), a Russian teacher and discoverer of the periodic system of the elements, who opened new areas of atomic knowledge.

http://www.atomcentral.com/

http://www.atomcentral.com/atom-bomb-history.aspx

History leading to the creation of the atomic bomb

“History Leading to the Creation of the Atomic Bomb.” History of the Atom Bomb. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

6: Subject: Before the bomb

William Konrad Roentgen (1845-1923), a German professor, whose discovery of X-rays provided for science a revolutionary tool. Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), the French experimentalist, who discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity. Max Planck (1858-1947), of Germany, who established the law of radiation, which led to the theory of quanta and the modern understanding of the electronic structure of matter. The parents of nuclear physics were the French team of Pierre and Marie Curie. From them came the realization that the atom has a core, or nucleus, quite different from the shell of the atom.

It became apparent that the nucleus is governed by different laws of physics. Concentrating in the atomic field, were great laboratories, like the Cavendish Laboratory of Experimental Physics, at Cambridge, England. Here worked Sir J.J. Thomson, who is 1897, discovered the electron, and his pupil, a pioneer of atomic exploration, Lord Rutherford. From Lord Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) came the discovery of the proton. He was the first to disintegrate the nucleus and established the character of radium emissions and suggested what the true nature of the atom might be.

http://www.atomcentral.com/

http://www.atomcentral.com/atom-bomb-history.aspx

History leading to the creation of the atomic bomb

“History Leading to the Creation of the Atomic Bomb.” History of the Atom Bomb. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

6: Subject: Before the bomb

Max von Laue (1879-1960), of Germany, interpreted the crystalline structure of matter, clue to the secrets of atomic structure. In 1905, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) wrote the mass-energy conversion equation. Sir James Chadwick, a student and co-worker of Lord Rutherford, in 1932, discovered the third fundamental particle of the atom, the neutron. This would provide an ideal projectile for splitting the nucleus of the atom.

The final clue to the discovery of the neutron and atomic energy was supplied to Chadwick by Frederick Joliot and his wife, Irene Curie-Joliet, who had observed a peculiar property of the radiation emitted when beryllium is bombarded with alpha particles. Enrico Fermi, an Italian physicist, in 1934, bombarded uranium with slow neutrons and created new elements. Niels Bohr, Danish physicist, is chiefly responsible for the planetary conception of the atom.

http://www.atomcentral.com/

http://www.atomcentral.com/atom-bomb-history.aspx

History leading to the creation of the atomic bomb

“History Leading to the Creation of the Atomic Bomb.” History of the Atom Bomb. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

6: Subject: Before the bomb

In 1938, the discovery of fission of the uranium nucleus by neutron bombardment. Leading names in this research carried out in Germany, were Dr. Otto Hahn and Dr. Fritz Strassmann. In June 1940, President Roosevelt organized the National Defense Research Committee. The Uranium Committee became a part of this group, reporting to Dr. Vannevar Bush. Dr. Bush and the National Defense Research Committee determined on an all out effort to develop an atomic bomb.

Under the direction of Major General Leslie R. Groves, the Manhattan Engineer District (the Manhattan Project), a new branch of the Army’s Corp of Engineers, was established to administer work on military uses of uranium. On December 2, 1942, the first self-sustaining chain reacting pile was successfully operated at the university of Chicago by Enrico Fermi.

http://www.atomcentral.com/

http://www.atomcentral.com/atom-bomb-history.aspx

History leading to the creation of the atomic bomb

“History Leading to the Creation of the Atomic Bomb.” History of the Atom Bomb. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

6: Subject: Before the bomb

This success brought authorization for construction of the Clinton diffusion plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the giant plutonium producing plant on the columbia river at Hanford, Washington. The Oakridge plant was designed to concentrate U-235, one of five known isotopes of uranium while the Hanford plant was the source of a new, man-made element, Plutonium. Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer arrived at Los Alamos in March 1942 to take charge of the development of the atomic bomb.

From Los Alamos came the design of the implosion bomb and treatment of many theoretical problems. Methods of purifying materials to be used were developed. Finally, in July, 1945, a practical atomic bomb was completed. On July 16, 1945, the first test, code named “Trinity” was exploded at Alamogordo, New Mexico.

http://www.atomcentral.com/

http://www.atomcentral.com/atom-bomb-history.aspx

History leading to the creation of the atomic bomb

“History Leading to the Creation of the Atomic Bomb.” History of the Atom Bomb. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

8. Trinity

At 5:30 AM on the morning of July 16, 1945, the pre-dawn stillness of the New Mexico desert was shattered by the most momentous, man-made explosion of all time. At a site called Trinity, a plutonium bomb was assembled and atop a 100 foot steel tower.

The bomb was detonated, producing an intense flash and a fireball that expanded to 600 meters in two seconds. The explosive power was equivalent to 18.6 kilotons of TNT. It grew to a height of more than 12 kilometers, boiling up in the shape of a mushroom. Forty seconds later, the blast of air from the bomb reached the observation bunkers, along with a long and deafening roar of sound. And so began the ATOMIC AGE…

http://www.atomcentral.com/trinity-explosion.aspx

Trinity, the birth of the atomic age

“Trinity, the Birth of the Atomic Age.” Trinity Explosion. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

2. Subject: First use of the atomic bomb – Japan bombing

The uranium gun weapon, “Little Boy Bomb”, was a simple design and scientists were confident it would without testing. The “Fat Man”, or implosion bomb, was a more efficient design, using plutonium instead of uranium. Inside the very center of the bomb was an initiator, surrounded by a sphere of plutonium.

http://www.atomcentral.com/trinity-explosion.aspx

Trinity, the birth of the atomic age

“Trinity, the Birth of the Atomic Age.” Trinity Explosion. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

8. Trinity

Finally, in July 16, 1945, a practical atomic bomb was completed. The first test, code named “Trinity” was exploded at Alamogordo, New Mexico. The “Trinity” test confirmed the implosion design used for the Fat Man bomb exploded over Nagasaki. Long before the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the United States in late 1941 established a secret program, which came to be known as the Manhattan Project, to develop an atomic bomb, a powerful explosive nuclear weapon.

http://www.atomcentral.com/trinity-explosion.aspx

Trinity, the birth of the atomic age

“Trinity, the Birth of the Atomic Age.” Trinity Explosion. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

8. Trinity

The aim of the project, directed by physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer, was to build an atom bomb before Germany did. After Roosevelt’s death in April 1945, Harry S. Truman became president and inherited the bomb-development program. At this point, the new weapon had two purposes. First, it could be used to force Japan to surrender.

Second, possession of the bomb would enable the United States, and not the USSR, to control postwar policy. On August 29, 1949, the Russians detonated their first atomic bomb. This event, coming five years earlier than anyone in the West had predicted, was largely the result of one man, Klaus Fuchs.

http://www.atomcentral.com/trinity-explosion.aspx

Trinity, the birth of the atomic age

“Trinity, the Birth of the Atomic Age.” Trinity Explosion. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

8. Trinity

Fuchs, a Los Alamos physicist, had passed detailed blue prints of the original Trinity design to the Russians. With the emergence of the USSR as a nuclear rival, the United States believed it had strong motivation for intensifying its program of nuclear testing.

http://www.atomcentral.com/trinity-explosion.aspx

Trinity, the birth of the atomic age

“Trinity, the Birth of the Atomic Age.” Trinity Explosion. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2015. .

9. Cold War

***begins with the beginning of WWI

The seeds of hostility between the United States and the USSR began near the end of World War I. The Bolsheviks (later Communists) overthrew the existing Russian government.

In December 1922 began the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) under Communist control. The United States refused to recognize the Soviet state until 1933.

The profound ideological differences between the USSR and the United States were problematic and made worse by Joseph Stalin, who ruled the USSR from 1929 to 1953 as a ruthless dictator.

http://www.atomcentral.com/the-cold-war.aspx

The Cold War

“The Cold War.” – Nuclear Arms Race. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

9. Cold War

In 1947 president Harry S. Truman authorized U.S. aid (The Truman Doctrine) to anti-Communist forces in Greece and Turkey. The policy was expanded to justify support for any nation that the U.S. government considered to be threatened by Soviet expansionism. This policy, known as the containment doctrine, was aimed at holding back and restricting the spread of Communism world wide.

Containment quickly became the official U.S. policy towards the USSR. In the meantime, the Russians obtained top secret blue prints of the original Trinity design.

http://www.atomcentral.com/the-cold-war.aspx

The Cold War

“The Cold War.” – Nuclear Arms Race. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

9. Cold War

On August 29th, 1949, the Soviet Union detonated its first atomic bomb, at the Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan. This event ends America’s monopoly of atomic weaponry and launches the Cold War. In the 1950’s, The Arms Race became the focus of the Cold War. America tested the first Hydrogen (or thermo-nuclear) bomb in 1952, beating the Russians in the creation of the “Super Bomb”.

The political climate of the Cold war became more defined in January, 1954, when U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles announced the policy that came to be known as “massive retaliation” — any major Soviet attack would be met with a massive nuclear response. As a result to the challenge of “massive retaliation” came the most significant by-product of the Cold War, the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM).

The ICBM’s were supported with the thermo-nuclear bomb (with a much greater destructive power than the original atomic bomb), inertial guidance systems (defines the difference between weight, the influence of gravity and the impact of inertia), and powerful booster engines for multistage rockets. As a result, ballistic missiles became sufficiently accurate and powerful to destroy targets 8000 km (5000 mi) away. For more than thirty years, the ICBM has been the symbol of the United States’ strategic nuclear arsenal.

http://www.atomcentral.com/the-cold-war.aspx

The Cold War

“The Cold War.” – Nuclear Arms Race. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

9. Cold War

In October 1961, The Soviet Union detonates a nuclear device, estimated at 58 megatons, the equivalent of more than 50 million tons of TNT, or more than all the explosives used during World War II. It is the largest nuclear weapon the world had ever seen at that time. The Tsar Bomba (King of the Bombs) is detonated after US and USSR agree to limit nuclear testing. It is the largest nuclear device ever exploded. Having no strategic military value, Tsar is viewed as an act of intimidation by the Soviets.

http://www.atomcentral.com/the-cold-war.aspx

The Cold War

“The Cold War.” – Nuclear Arms Race. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

9. Cold War

The Cuban Missile Crisis

The most serious Cold War confrontation between the United States and the USSR that took place in October, 1962. The U.S. discovered that the Soviets were in the process of positioning nuclear missiles in Communist Cuba. The United States sends naval blockade to stop Soviet ships carrying missiles to Cuba. October, 22, U.S. military alert is set at DEFCON 3 and Castro mobilizes all of Cuba’s military forces. October, 24, Soviet ships reach the quarantine line, but receive radio orders from Moscow to hold their positions while being backed up by a Soviet submarine. JFK concludes that if we invade in the next ten days, the missile base crews in Cuba will likely fire at least some of the missiles at US targets.

October, 25, American military forces are instructed to set DEFCON 2 – the highest ever in U.S. history. October, 26, Khrushchev receives a cable from Castro urging a nuclear first strike against the US in the event of an invasion of Cuba.

October, 27, while one U-2 spy plane accidentally flies into Russia, another is shot down over Cuba. October, 28, the crises ends. In a speech aired on Radio Moscow, Khrushchev announces the dismantling of Soviet missiles in Cuba and does not insist on his demands concerning the removal of U.S. missiles from Turkey.

http://www.atomcentral.com/the-cold-war.aspx

Cold War

The Cuban Missile Crisis

“The Cuban Missile Crisis.” The Cuban Missile Crisis. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

9. Cold War

The Cuban Missile Crisis

From the Cuban missile crisis both sides learned that risking nuclear war in pursuit of political objectives was simply too dangerous. It was the last time during the Cold War that either side would take this risk. After the Cuban Missile Crisis, the US and USSR still superimposed their competition on local conflicts in other parts of the globe.

In Africa, newly independent nations such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Nigeria, received military backing and other assistance from the United States and the USSR. American-Soviet competition in the Third World intensified once again, this time during the civil war in Angola and the Somali-Ethiopian war over the Ogaden region. During this phase of the Cold War, Communist Cuba played a significant role alongside the USSR, while the Chinese, now deeply wary of the USSR, participated on the side of the United States.

http://www.atomcentral.com/the-cold-war.aspx

Cold War

The Cuban Missile Crisis

“The Cuban Missile Crisis.” The Cuban Missile Crisis. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

9. Cold War

The Cuban Missile Crisis

The early 1980s was a final period of friction between the United States and the USSR, resulting mainly from the Soviets’ invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 to establish a Communist regime. In 1983, president Ronald Reagan announces the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Commonly known as Star Wars, SDI is envisioned as a satellite-based nuclear defense system, which would destroy incoming missiles and warheads in space.

August 1985, the Soviet Union announces a nuclear testing moratorium. December 1987, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. President Reagan sign the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces — the first arms accord signed by both Moscow and Washington that calls for the elimination of an entire class of weapons — intermediate-range missiles. July 1991,the United States and the Soviet Union sign the Strategic Arms Reduction Act.

http://www.atomcentral.com/the-cold-war.aspx

Cold War

The Cuban Missile Crisis

“The Cuban Missile Crisis.” The Cuban Missile Crisis. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

11. Test Ban Treaties

The limited test ban treaty
Signed in 1963, the Limited Test Ban Treaty:

Prohibits nuclear weapon test explosions and any other nuclear explosions in three environments: in the atmosphere, in outer space and underwater, but does not prohibit underground nuclear explosions.

http://www.atomcentral.com/test-ban-treaties.aspx

“The Limited Test Ban Treaty.” Nuclear Test Ban Treaties. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

11. Test Ban Treaties
The limited test ban treaty
Signed in 1963, the Limited Test Ban Treaty:

During the negotiation of the LTBT, the phrase “or any other nuclear explosion” was included for the specific purpose of prohibiting explosions of nuclear devices for peaceful applications, so-called “peaceful nuclear explosions” or “PNEs.” LTBT negotiators recognized that any nuclear explosion could provide military benefits, and therefore that without the inclusion of this phrase, a State Party could conduct nuclear explosions providing valuable military benefits on the pretense that they were solely peaceful purposes explosions and not “nuclear weapon test explosions.”

During much of the negotiation of the Treaty, one delegation in particular, China, sought to retain the possibility of carrying out underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes, citing Article V of the NPT, which recognizes that, for reasons of non-discrimination, non-military benefits that might be derived from peaceful applications of nuclear explosions would need to be available to non-nuclear weapon States Parties.
Mikhail Gorbachev test ban treaty

After the Cuban missile crisis, Kennedy and Khrushchev established a telephone hot line, and in 1963 they signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty that banned nuclear tests in the air and in the water.

http://www.atomcentral.com/test-ban-treaties.aspx

“The Limited Test Ban Treaty.” Nuclear Test Ban Treaties. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

11. Test Ban Treaties

Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

The CTBT marks an historic milestone in America’s efforts to reduce the nuclear threat and build a safer world.

The CTBT will prohibit any nuclear explosion, whether for weapons or other purposes.
Halting all nuclear explosions will constrain the development of more sophisticated and destructive nuclear weapons.
The CTBT will thus help to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons, promote nuclear disarmament, and enhance U.S. national security and that of our friends and allies.

http://www.atomcentral.com/test-ban-treaties.aspx

“The Limited Test Ban Treaty.” Nuclear Test Ban Treaties. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

11. Test Ban Treaties

The CTBT was negotiated in the Geneva Conference on Disarmament (CD) between January 1994 and August 1996. The United Nations General Assembly voted on September 10, 1996, to adopt the Treaty by a vote of 158 in favor, 3 opposed, and 5 abstentions. President Clinton was the first world leader to sign the CTBT on September 24, 1996. 151 other nations have now signed, and 41 have ratified. The Treaty will enter into force following ratification by the United States and 43 other CD member states with nuclear power and/or research reactors. Twenty-one of these 44 states – almost half – have now ratified. Failure by the Senate to provide its advice and consent would prevent the entry into force of this important arms control agreement.

http://www.atomcentral.com/test-ban-treaties.aspx

“The Limited Test Ban Treaty.” Nuclear Test Ban Treaties. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

13. ICBM Missiles

Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles

After World War II, the U.S. defensive policy of strategic deterrence depended on a large fleet of long-range bombers that could deliver accurate nuclear strategic attacks. This method of defence was too slow to deploy in case of extreme emergency, a better, faster, and less costly solution was needed.

http://www.atomcentral.com/icbm-missiles.aspx

“Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles.” ICBM Missile Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

13. ICBM Missiles

Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles

Three developments in the mid-1950s, however, led to the intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM): (1) development of the thermonuclear bomb with a much greater destructive power than the original atomic bomb; (2) the rapid refinement of inertial guidance systems for ballistic missiles; and (3) the development of powerful booster engines for multistage rockets, greatly increasing their size and range. As a result, ballistic missiles became sufficiently accurate and powerful to destroy targets 8000 km (5000 mi) away. For more than thirty years, the ICBM has been the the symbol of the United States’ strategic nuclear arsenal.

http://www.atomcentral.com/icbm-missiles.aspx

“Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles.” ICBM Missile Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

12. How tests were conducted

How Nuclear Tests were conducted

Tower Shot
Atomic Tower for Nuclear Testing

Plumbob Shot Tower – 1957
Shot Smoky – August 31, 1957

The Smoky shot tower soars 700 feet into the air above Yucca Flat. The first atomic test tower of this height, the structure may well be the tallest steel tower of its type.

The tower was designed by Holmes & Narver, inc.

http://www.atomcentral.com/nuclear-tests.aspx

How Nuclear Tests were conducted

“How Nuclear Tests Were Conducted.” Nuclear Test Types. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

12. How tests were conducted

How Nuclear Tests were conducted

Balloon Suspension
balloon suspension nuclear test

Plumbbob Shot Balloon – 1957

Cab attached, a shot balloon begins ascent during a test run at the Nevada Test Site.

Inflation is accomplished by inserting a metal probe with thousands of holes into a plastic filler tube attached at the bottom of the big balloon.
Operations:

Plumbbob (1957) – 13 Balloons
Hardtack (1958) – Yucca
Hardtack II (1958) – 11 Balloons

http://www.atomcentral.com/nuclear-tests.aspx

How Nuclear Tests were conducted

“How Nuclear Tests Were Conducted.” Nuclear Test Types. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

12. How tests were conducted

Exploded Under the Ocean
underwater nuclear test

Operation Hardtack
Shot Umbrella (June 8, 1958)

Yield: 8 Kilotons
Location: Enewetak Atoll
Operations:

Crossroads (1946) – 1 underwater
Wigwam (1955) – 1 underwater
Hardtack (1958) – 2 underwater
Dominic (1962) – 1 underwater

http://www.atomcentral.com/nuclear-tests.aspx

How Nuclear Tests were conducted

“How Nuclear Tests Were Conducted.” Nuclear Test Types. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

12. How tests were conducted

Detonated in Outer Space (High Altitude Detonations)
High Altitude Nuclear Test

Operation Hardtack
Shot Orange (August 12, 1958)

Yield 3.8 Megatons
Location of launch: Johnston Island
Operations:

Hardtack (1958) – 2 space detonations
Argus (1958) – 3 space detonations
Dominic (1962) – 5 space detonations

http://www.atomcentral.com/nuclear-tests.aspx

How Nuclear Tests were conducted

“How Nuclear Tests Were Conducted.” Nuclear Test Types. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

12. How tests were conducted

Air to Air Missile Test
air to air nuclear missile tests

Operation Plumbob
Shot John (July 19, 1957)

Yield: About 2 Kilotons
Location of launch: Nevada Test Site

A Live nuclear rocket accelerates past the launching F-89 Scorpion. Once launched, the Scorpion banks at about 70 degrees to evade the forthcoming nuclea explosion.

The rocket project was begun in early 1954 and code named “Genie” by the Air Research and Development Command.

http://www.atomcentral.com/nuclear-tests.aspx

How Nuclear Tests were conducted

“How Nuclear Tests Were Conducted.” Nuclear Test Types. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

10. Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis

Between October 15 and November 1, the time period during which the Cuban Missile Crisis took place, six nuclear tests took place in the Johnston Island area of the Pacific Ocean. These tests were either Airdrops from B-52’s or shot into space by a solid fueled XM-33 Strypi rocket.

NOT included are the three underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site or the twelve Atmospheric nuclear tests conducted by the Russians at Novaya Zemlya or Semipalatinsk during the same period.

http://www.atomcentral.com/cuban-missile-crisis.aspx

The Cuban Missile Crisis

“The Cuban Missile Crisis.” The Cuban Missile Crisis. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

10. Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis

Timeline of events (American Nuclear tests in blue Italics)

Day 1: Tuesday, October 16
Crisis begins President Kennedy convenes his Executive Committee to consider America’s options.
DAY 2: Wednesday, October 17
President Kennedy meets with Soviet Foreign Minister Andrie Gromyko and advises him that America will not tolerate Soviet missiles in Cuba. Gromyko denies the presence of any Soviet weaponry in Cuba.
DAY 3: Thursday, October 18
CHAMA Dominic Airdrop test over Johnston Island area. 1.59 Megaton yield Hydrogen bomb test.
DAY 4: Friday, October 19
JFK meets with the secretary of defense, Robert McNamara, and the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. They discuss military options.
DAY 5: Saturday, October 20
President Kennedy returns to Washington to discuss the discovery of additional Soviet missiles in Cuba.
CHECKMATE Dominic High Altitude test on Missile test over Johnston Island Area. Low Kiloton yield.
DAY 6: Sunday, October 21
President Kennedy decides on a naval blockade of Cuba.

http://www.atomcentral.com/cuban-missile-crisis.aspx

The Cuban Missile Crisis

“The Cuban Missile Crisis.” The Cuban Missile Crisis. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

10. Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis

DAY 7: Monday, October 22
President Kennedy addresses the American public and announces his plan to implement a naval blockade of Cuba. U.S. military alert is set at DEFCON 3 and Castro mobilizes all of Cuba’s military forces.
High Altitude Russian Nuclear Test at Kapustin Yar Hydrogen Bomb on Rocket. Yield Approx. 300 Kilotons.
DAY 8: Tuesday, October 23
The OAS (Organization of American States) supports the decision to quarantine Cuba. Reconnaissance photos reveal that Soviet missiles are ready for launch.
– McNamara, Kennedy review and discuss options of confrontation.
– Discussion of diplomatic efforts at the UN and the vote by the Organization of American States.
DAY 9: Wednesday, October 24
Soviet ships reach the quarantine line, but receive radio orders from Moscow to hold their positions.
– Consideration of civil defense options and planning for possible Soviet responses in Berlin. – JFK concludes that if we invade in the next ten days, the missile base crews in Cuba will likely fire at least some of the missiles at US targets.
– Detailed briefing on new reconnaissance photos from Cuba and discussion of the need to disperse planes at Florida bases in the event of attacks by MIGs based in Cuba.
– McNamara talks of a very dangerous situation since ships approaching the quarantine line are being shadowed by a Soviet submarine.
DAY 10: Thursday, October 25
U.S. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson confronts the Soviets at the U.N. but they refuse to answer. American military forces are instructed to set DEFCON 2 – the highest ever in U.S. history.
– Review of the movement of ships toward the quarantine line and potential US responses.

http://www.atomcentral.com/cuban-missile-crisis.aspx

The Cuban Missile Crisis

“The Cuban Missile Crisis.” The Cuban Missile Crisis. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

10. Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis

DAY 11: Friday, October 26
EX-COMM receives a letter from Khrushchev stating that the Soviets would remove their missiles if President Kennedy publicly guarantees the U.S. will not invade Cuba.
– The CIA reports that the construction of the missile sites is continuing and accelerating. RFK meets secretly with Soviet Ambassador Dobrynin and agrees after a phone call to the president that the removal of US missiles from Turkey is negotiable as part of a comprehensive settlement. – Khrushchev receives a cable from Castro urging a nuclear first strike against the US in the event of an invasion of Cuba.
BLUEGILL TRIPLE PRIME Dominic test High altitude on Thor IRBM over Johnston Island area. Low Kiloton yield.
DAY 12: Saturday, October 27
While one U-2 spy plane accidentally flies into Russia, another is shot down over Cuba. EX-COMM receives a second letter from Khrushchev stating that, in addition to a public promise not to invade Cuba, the U.S. remove its missiles from Turkey.
CALAMITY Dominic Airdrop over Johnston Island area by B-52 Hydrogen bomb test. Yield 800 Kilotons.
DAY 13: Sunday, October 28
The crisis is over
– In a speech aired on Radio Moscow, Khrushchev announces the dismantling of Soviet missiles in Cuba and does not insist on his demands concerning the removal of U.S. missiles from Turkey. High Altitude Russian Nuclear Test conducted at Kapustin Yar. Hydrogen Bomb on Rocket. Yield approx. 300 Kilotons.

http://www.atomcentral.com/cuban-missile-crisis.aspx

The Cuban Missile Crisis

“The Cuban Missile Crisis.” The Cuban Missile Crisis. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

10. Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis

Monday, October 29
JFK orders US ships to remain on the quarantine line and authorizes continuation of low-level reconnaissance flights.
Tuesday, October 30
HOUSATONIC Dominic Airdrop over Johnston Island area by B-52 Hydrogen bomb test. Yield: 8.3 Megatons.
Thursday, November 1
KINGFISH Dominic High altitude Missile test over Johnston Island Area. Sub Megaton test.
High Altitude Russian Nuclear Test conducted at Kapustin Yar. Hydrogen Bomb on Rocket. Yield approx. 300 Kilotons.
Wednesday, November 21
Just over a month after the crisis began, JFK terminates the quarantine when Khrushchev agrees after several weeks of tense negotiations at the UN to withdraw Soviet IL-28 nuclear bombers from Cuba.
1963
John F. Kennedy signs the Limited Test Ban Treaty.

http://www.atomcentral.com/cuban-missile-crisis.aspx

The Cuban Missile Crisis

“The Cuban Missile Crisis.” The Cuban Missile Crisis. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

14. Missile Defense History

***It is unclear at this time if I really need to add this into my research paper. This paper is supposed to be the history of the atomic bomb. I think all I need to do is mention a few things that I do believe that I have. If need to…the cited web address lists in chronological order a timeline of missile defense

http://www.atomcentral.com/missile-defense.aspx

AGAIN…THIS IS a timeline for MISSILE DEFENSE….

not atomic bomb history

15. Tsar Bomb

**more info about the cold war between the US and Russia and Russia’s bomb

On October 23, 1961, Soviet pilot A. E. Durnovtsev guides his Tu-95 Bomber towards the Arctic Sea above Novaya Zemlya Island. This day will make atomic history, not as an advancement in nuclear science, but rather as a statement of intimidation by the Soviet Union to the United States in those tense days now known as The Cold War.

The bomber is carrying a secret cargo that will soon make the world take notice of Russia as a serious nuclear threat to the survial of mankind. For on this day a nuclear weapon rides into history as the largest thermonuclear bomb ever constructed and detonated named, “Tsar Bomba…King of the Bombs.”

The events of the Cold War leading up to Tsar puts a strain on world peace as the U.S. and Soviet Union play a deadly game of military and political “cat and mouse”.

http://www.atomcentral.com/tsar-bomba.aspx

“Tsar Bomba – King of the Bombs.” Tsar Bomba. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

15. Tsar Bomb

On July 10, 1961 Nikita Khruschev meets with Sakharov, then the senior weapon designer, and directs him to develop a 100 megaton bomb. This device had to be ready for a test series due to begin in September so that the series would create maximum political impact.

Aug 1961 – The Berlin Wall is erected by the Soviets dividing Berlin into two separate cities: East Berlin (communist) and West Berlin (democratic).
Sept 1961 – President Kennedy’s letter in the Sept issure of LIFE advises Americans to build fallout shelters. For an entire year the American public is obsessed with “fallout shelter mainia”.

Tsar was developed in a remarkably short time, just fourteen weeks after the initiation of its design. It weights in at 27 metric tons!

http://www.atomcentral.com/tsar-bomba.aspx

“Tsar Bomba – King of the Bombs.” Tsar Bomba. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

15. Tsar Bomb

A scaled down version of the original is produced by replacing the uranium fusion tamper (which amplifies the reaction) with one made of lead to eliminate fast fission by the fusion neutrons, hence reducing the power of the original version. A 50 megaton bomb was now ready to be detonated.

The test method for Tsar was a Parachute Retarded Airburst dropped from a bomber at 4000 meter altitude.

October 23, 1961 the Soviet Union unexpectedly explodes Tsar. The impact of a 100 meg ton atomic bomb startles the world because Khrushchev had assured President Kennedy in June 1961 that the Soviet Union wouldn’t test nuclear devices if the United States didn’t.

http://www.atomcentral.com/tsar-bomba.aspx

“Tsar Bomba – King of the Bombs.” Tsar Bomba. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

15. Tsar Bomb

Some interesting facts regarding Tsar Bomba:

A bomb this size is virtually useless militarily. The efficient method to destroy a city is with many smaller bombs rather than one huge bomb.
If detonated at full scale the yield of 100 megatons (100Mt–equal to one hundred million tons of TNT). The explosive force of this bomb would have been approximately 6,500 times the 15-16 kiloton bomb detonated at Hiroshima. It would have increased the world’s total fission fallout since the invention of the atomic bomb by 25%.
The fabrication of the massive parachute disrupted the Soviet nylon hosiery industry. Commerical impact unknown.
Bomber pilot A. E. Durnovtsev was made a Hero of the Soviet Union.

http://www.atomcentral.com/tsar-bomba.aspx

“Tsar Bomba – King of the Bombs.” Tsar Bomba. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

15. Tsar Bomb

Tsar was not the “end to all” in the days of the Cold War. It proved that the delivery of nuclear weapons by long range aircraft was inefficient in time war. An immediate response to nuclear attack was needed, something that was fast, reliable and cost effective to maintain. The resulting solution was the creation of new nuclear weapon delivery systems of war…the intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).

Exactly one year from the Tsar’s detonation in October 1961 to October 1962 the United States is on the brink of nuclear war as the Cuban Missile Crisis marks another chapter in atomic history.

http://www.atomcentral.com/tsar-bomba.aspx

“Tsar Bomba – King of the Bombs.” Tsar Bomba. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

16. Broken Arrows and Accidents

Broken Arrows

Since 1950, there have been 32 nuclear weapon accidents, known as “Broken Arrows.”

A Broken Arrow is defined as an unexpected event involving nuclear weapons that result in the accidental launching, firing, detonating, theft or loss of the weapon. To date, six nuclear weapons have been lost and never recovered.Now, recently declassified documents reveal the history and secrecy surrounding the events known as “Broken Arrows”.

There have been 32 nuclear weapon accidents since 1950. Six of these nuclear weapons have been lost and never recovered. What does this say about our defense system? What does this mean to our threatened environment? What do we do to rectify these monumental “mistakes”?

http://www.atomcentral.com/broken-arrows.aspx

“Broken Arrows.” Atomic Accidents. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

16. Broken Arrows and Accidents

Atomic Bomb hits South Carolina

March 11, 1958 Florence South Carolina

On March 11, 1958, at 3:52 P.M. (EST), a B-47E departed Hunter AFB, Georgia, as number three aircraft in a flight of four en route to an overseas base. After level off at 15,000 feet, the aircraft accidentally jettisoned an unarmed nuclear weapon which impacted on a sparsely populated area approximately 6 miles from Florence, South Carolina. The Bomb’s high explosive material exploded on impact. The explosion caused property damage and several injuries on the ground.

http://www.atomcentral.com/broken-arrows.aspx

“Broken Arrows.” Atomic Accidents. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

6: Subject: Before the bomb

Leo Szilard (1898-1964): Hungarian-born physicist. Szilard studied in Germany with Albert Einstein. In 1933 he conceived the nuclear chain reaction, and in 1939 drafted the letter from Einstein to President Franklin Roosevelt. he co-designed the first nuclear reactor with enrico Fermi, known as the Chicago Pile-1, which first operated December 2, 1942. Beginning in 1944 he worked to prevent use of nuclear weapons on Japan, helped draft the Franck Committee report urging a demonstration, organized a petition to President Harry Truman signed by 155 scientists, and after World War II worked to control nuclear proliferation.

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

Page 474

1. Subject: What is the Manhattan Project

Secret Cities

The three principal Manhattan Project sites were “secret cities” where 125,000 people worked and lived and were not on any maps during World War II.

Secrecy was paramount and the sites were referred to only by their code names, “X,” “Y,” and “Z.” Employees were issued badges and driver’s licenses had numbers without any names.

The five thousand residents at Los Alamos shared the same address: P.O. Box 1663 in Santa Fe, making Sears and Roebuck sales clerks extremely curious when they received orders for more than a dozen baby bassinets to be delivered to the same address.

Beyond the large-scale works at Oak Ridge, Hanford, and Los Alamos, there were secret activities occurring in many cities in the United States and abroad…

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

Page 155

1. Subject: What is the Manhattan Project

Secret Cities

The odds of producing an atomic bomb in time for use in World War II were long because of the enormous number of scientific and technical issues that had to be resolved. Fearing that Germany had a two-year lead, the Manhattan Project leaders hedged their bets by undertaking several different approaches simultaneously. Two different ingredients, plutonium and highly enriched uranium, were pursued as the fuel for an atomic bomb. Three techniques were utilized to produce highly enriched uranium at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, while gigantic facilities at Hanford, Washington, were built to produce plutonium. At Los Alamos, New Mexico, physicists, chemist, and engineers worked on the theoretical and practical aspects of making atomic bombs from both types of material.

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

Page 155

1. Subject: What is the Manhattan Project

Secret Cities

Virtually built from scratch, these communities most closely resembled frontier towns. Aside from the security restrictions and military police, the common denominator of Los Alamos, Hanford, and Oak Ridge in the early years was ever-present mud and dust, as barracks, dormitories, and houses were quickly built along unpaved roads for the steady influx of people. Early plans far underestimated the number people needed to construct and operate the plants and laboratories, and there was a chronic shortage of housing, schools, health-care facilities, and other resources. At Oak Ridge, a community known euphemistically as “Happy Valley” housed nearly 15,000 people in barracks, trailers, and temporary shelters, with long lines in the morning to use the communal bathing facilities.

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

Page 156

1. Subject: What is the Manhattan Project

Secret Cities

Workers were only told as much as they needed to know to do their jobs and were forbidden to talk about what they did with others, including their wives and close colleagues. Many only learned the purpose of their efforts on August 6, 1945, when radio broadcasts and newspaper headlines announced that an atomic bomb had been dropped on Hiroshima, Japan.

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

Page 156

1. Subject: What is the Manhattan Project

Biographies

J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967): American physicist. A brilliant theoretical physicist, Oppenheimer was a professor at both the University of California, Berkeley, and the California Institute of Technology before the MP. In November 1942, General Groves chose him to lead the scientific work. Oppenheimer was director of the laboratory at Los Alamos and is commonly recognized as the “father of the atomic bomb.”

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

page 472

1. Subject: What is the Manhattan Project

Biographies

Leslie R. Groves (1896-1970): United States Army officer. A graduate of West Point, Groves entered the Army Corps of Engineers in 1918 and was promoted several times before being named deputy to the Chief of Construction in 1940. For the next two years Groves basically oversaw all Army domestic construction projects, including the Pentagon. In September 1942 he was appointed to head the Manhattan Project.

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

page 470

1. Subject: What is the Manhattan Project

An Extraordinary Pair

Oppenheimer had two major disadvantages—he had had almost no administrative experience of any kind, and he was not a Nobel Prize winner. Because of the latter lack, he did not then have the prestige among his fellow scientists that I would have liked the project leader to possess.

Now was he unanimously favored when i first brought the question before the Military Policy Committee.

But there was still a snag. His background included much that was not to our liking by any means. The security organization, which was not yet under my complete control, was unwilling to clear him because of certain of his associations, particularly in the past.

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

page 112, 113

1. Subject: What is the Manhattan Project

Secrecy, Intelligence, and Counterintelligence

Laura Fermi recalls a group picnic to Frijoles Canyon with members of the British Mission, including a mild-mannered scientist who drove her car over the rough back roads. Later, Laura and others at Los Alamos were shocked to realize that this companionable person, Klaus Fuchs, was a Soviet spy.

Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

Kelly, Cynthia C. The Manhattan Project: The Birth of the Atomic Bomb in the Words of Its Creators, Eyewitnesses, and Historians. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print.

page 247 (story is pages 247-

What is the Manhattan Project
Book
Title: The Manhattan Project

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