Personality Chapter

The big Five personality traits
Openness to experience

Never Eat Octopus And Clams

psychodynamic theories
these theories propose that we are motivated by the unconcious. They attempt to explain human behavior based on that premise. It is argued that they are unscientific because results are not falsifiable.

freuds three levels of awareness
concious – what we are paying attention to
preconcious – info that is readily available
unconcious – thoughts we have no awareness of

the Id (freud)
freuds part of the personality that is unconcious and composed primarily of biological urges.
Operates according the the “pleasure principle”. characterized by “primary thinking process”
(illogical, irrational, motivated by immediate gratification)

The Ego (freud)
The componant that manages the conflict between the Id and the demands of the real world.
Operates according to the “reality principle”
(awareness of need to delay gratification)
Characterized by “secondary process thinking”
(logical and rational)

superego (freud)
According to freud – the moral componant of personality.
learned from society

repression (defense mechanisms)
keeping unpleasant thoughts in the unconcious

reaction formation (defense mechanism)
behaving in the way that is opposite to what is considered unacceptable. Forming an acceptable reaction.

projection (defense mechanism)
attributing ones own unacceptable thoughts to someone else

rationalization (defense mechanism)
using incorrect explanations to justify thoughts, behavior and feelings

displacement (defense mechanism)
transferring/displacing feelings about a person or event onto something or someone else

denial (defense mechanism)
refusing to acknowledge something that is obvious

regression (defense mechanism)
reverting to a more immature state of psychological development

sublimation (defense mechanism)
channeling unnacceptable thoughts feelings or behavior into socially acceptable behavior

thought to be caused by internal conflicts. According to freud- arises when the ego can’t balance the demands of the id and superego

freud’s psychosexual stages of development
Anal – Controlling (anal retentive) easily angered (anal expulsive)
Phallic – Shame, guilt or anxiety about sex
Latency – No fixations. Sexuality is dormant.
Genital – No fixations. Sexual urges return.

images or thoughts that have the same meaning for all humans.

personal concious and collective concious (jung)
two “kinds of concious”. Layers of the unconcious according to Jung
one resembled freuds type –
the other – universal human memories of the common past

Alfred Adler
he believed main motivation for human behavior was striving for superiority. ‘individual psychology’

Behaviorist theories
Theories that emerged in the 1910s led by Watson. Study only observable behavior. Focus their explanations about personality on learning. May underestimate the importance of biological factors.

response tendencies
hypothesis that people have particular behavior patterns and have learned to behave in a particular way so they have a ‘tendency to respond’ in particular ways. They have a _______ ________

reciprocal determinism
peoples characterstics help determine where they find themselves and that enviroment helps shape their characteristics

humanistic theories/humanism
theories coined in the 1950s. Focuses on qualities that make us unique as humans such as self determination and self-realization. See peoples lives as those people would see them such as with Maslows hierarchy of human needs. Based on individualistic values.

innate personality

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
MMPI-2. A true/false/cannot answer, personality test.

Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.
16PF. Asesses 16 basics dimensions of personality

the NEO personality inventory
measures “the big five” traits. “Inventorys personality”

projective personality tests
personality test that requires subjects to respond to ambiguous stimuli. Based on the “projective hypothesis”

projective hypothesis
the hypothesis that people respond to ambiguous stimuli in ways that are revealing about their thoughts and feelings. “They unconciously project their thoughts and feelings”

inkblot tests

Thematic apperception test (TAT)
a particular test to assess a persons need for acheivement

Psychodynamic Theory
Freud; emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences, repressed thoughts, conflicts between conscious and unconscious forces that influence our thoughts and behaviors

unconscious thoughts
wishes, thoughts or desires that because of their disturbing or threatening content, we automatically repress and cannot voluntarily access

conscious thoughts
wishes, desires or thoughts that we are aware of or can recall at a given moment

Techniques to Discover the Unconscious
free association, Freudian slips, dream analysis

free association
free flowing uncensored talk, can reveal the unconscious

Freudian slip
a “slip of the tongue”; things we say that are coming from our unconscious

dream analysis
dreams have underlying meaning that can provide clues to unconscious

latent content
hidden meaning of the dream

manifest content
surface meaning of the dream

Divisions of the Mind
id, ego, superego

Id (pleasure seeker)
driven by sex and aggression, source of psychic/mental energy; pursue pleasure, satisfy biological drives

pleasure principle
satisfy drives; avoid pain; no concern for moral restrictions or society’s regulations

Ego (negotiator)
find safe and socially acceptable ways to satisfy the Id; negotiates between the Id’s wants and the superego’s prohibitions

reality principle
satisfy a wish or desire only if there is a socially acceptable outlet

Superego (regulator)
applies the moral values and standards of ones parents, caregivers and society

Personality as Iceberg
reflects Freud’s divisions of the mind

personality traits that have contact with outside world

personality traits that are just beneath the surface of awareness

personality traits that are difficult to retrieve; below surface of awareness

can occur if needs are under or over satisfied at any of the first three stages

Psychosexual Stages
5 stages of freud’s Psychodynamic theory (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital)

oral stage
BIRTH TO 18 MO. Gratification from the mouth

anal stage
LATE INFANCINFANCY TO 3 YEARS; gratification from the anus and its functions; anal retentive – overly organized

phallic stage
3 TO 6 YEARS; gratification from the genitals; Oedipus/electra complex; penis envy

latency stage
6 YEARS TO PUBERTY; sexual thoughts are repressed and develops social/intellectual skills; “cootie stage”

genital stage
PUBERTY TO ADULTHOOD; sexual desires are directed toward other people

Oedipus complex
male child competes with his father for the attention of his mother; phallic stage

Electra complex
female child competes with her mother for the attention of her father; phallic stage

penis envy
a girl discovers she does not have a penis

unpleasant state where the Id and superego conflict to end the uneasy feelings, we may employ defense mechanisms

Defense Mechanisms
unconscious; a form of self deception; Freud identified 9 types

making excuses for behavior

refusal to recognize reality

complete unrecognition of an event or feeling, forgetting

passing an undesirable trait onto another

reaction formation
modifying an anxiety causing impulse by acting opposite ones true feelings; undesirable feelings are turned into acceptable behaviors

transferring feelings from their true source to another safer source

undesirable feelings are redirected into any socially acceptable behavior; feeling NOT related to action taken

covering a weakness by overgratifying oneself in another area

using immature responses; reverting to an earlier, safer stage of development; “baby talk”

Sigmund Freud
1856-1939; psychodynamic theory; known for the Psychosexual Theory of Personality

Personality – defined
Patterns, thoughts, feelings and actions make up your personality.
– Describes you as a person
– What makes you different from others
– Behavior patterns

For example: Introvert vs extrovert

Trait – defined
Words that can be used to describe you.

Character traits, talkative or quiet; loud or shy.

Carl Jung
Non-Freudian, Strong religion, Interest in paranormal, Study Personalities
– Introversion vs. Extroversion
– Complex
– Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Core pattern of emotions, memories, perceptions, and wishes in persons’ unconscious

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
4 Scales:
i. Extroversion vs. Introversion
ii. Sensing vs. Intuitive
iii. Thinking vs. Feeling
iv. Judging vs. Perceiving

Extroversion vs. Introversion
( E/I )
– Where you get your energy from
Extroversion: Energy from others, Talk about things, Learn best by discussion, Happier around people
Introversion: Energy from being alone, Reflect on things, Learn best by studying alone and reflecting on information

Sensing vs. Intuitive
( S/N )
– How you take in information
Sensing: Geared toward present, …. ?
Intuitive: How things are connected, New possibilities, Geared towards future, Imaginative

Thinking vs. Feeling
( T/F )
Thinking: Logical way of dealing with situation, Like to critique and analyze things, More mental
Feeling: Make decisions based off what they feel or what’s important to them, Appreciate and support others, Create harmony

Judging vs. Perceiving
( J/P )
– Way one gets things done
Judging: Planned, Get it done and move on, Write in planner
Perceiving: Spontaneous, Flexible, Planning confines you, Write in planner but never check it

Emphasizes need for security
– Moving Toward
– Moving Away
– Moving Against

Moving Toward
Need for affection and approval to not feel anxious

Moving Away
Need for power, for control

Moving Against
Feeling insecure, so try to be self-sufficient
– Perfectionism
– Solitude // Independence
– No Strong Feelings (Not love, Not hate)

Focused on the ability to consciously manage our lives
Thought that:
– Socialization is better
– We try to prove our selves and be superior
a. Inferiority Complex
b. Birth Order

Inferiority Complex
Trying to be superior but deep down is inferior
i. Compensation – Try to overcome inferiority by developing a skill

Birth Order
First born will be different than second born
Oldest: Most anxious
Youngest: Over indulged // Most attention
Middle: Most successful

Behavioral Therapy
Principles of learning to prevent unhelpful behavior
i. Systematic Desensitization

Systematic Desensitization
Teach person to relax
– Help develop hierarchy of phobias.
– Introduce person to fear and and start at smallest part of fear ’til they’re desensitized

Cognitive Therapy
Based off ABCs of therapy
A. Activating Event
B. Belief about event
C. Consequence

– Approach to psychology that emphasizes feelings and emotions
-better understanding of the self in terms of observation of oneself and one’s relations with others

Rogers (Humanistic Theory)
Believed people had difficulty accepting true feelings
– Split: who we are vs. who we are trying to be to others.

Characteristics in Therapeutic Process
Unconditional Positive Regard

Feeling emotion with the client
a. has to be accurate
b. convey to person you ARE experiencing this

Listening in terms of what’s going on inside of you
– What does it make you feel
–> Express it in a way that benefits them so they can be better

Unconditional Positive Regard
Loving person regardless of their behavior

Trait Perspectives ???
Enduring personality characteristic that lead to certain behaviors
1. Historic-Greek Perspective
2. Allport
3. Eysenck
4. “Big 5”

1st psychologist who focused on Personality
Thought Freud’s theory went to deep
a. cardinal trait
b. central trait
c. secondary trait

Cardinal Trait
Strong, Dominant, Present all the time, Not everyone has them.

Central Trait
General characteristics
(Ex: Messy, Organized, Friendly Kind… etc)
– How people describe you
– Normally have 6 to 12

Secondary Trait
Our preferences attitudes, likes or dislikes (our opinions)

From England (picked out traits that he was interested in)
a. Introversion vs. Extroversion
b. Stability vs. Instability
c. Psychoticism

Stability vs. Instability
Stability: calm, carefree, leadership abilities
Instability: mood, anxious, restless, emotionally touchy

How in contact people are with reality, how can control impulses, How cruelly or carely they treat others

“Big 5”
5 aspects of personality
– NEO-PI-R = test used to determine “big 5”

a. Neuroticism – (stability)

b. Extroversion – (extroversion)

c. Openness to Experience – Challenge authority explore new ideas, spontaneous, try/like new things

d. Agreeableness – Easy to get along with, straight forward, like to help others, dislike confrontation, sympathetic, empathetic

e. Conscientiousness – Like order, routine, strong sense of moral obligation, good self-discipline, think before they act, good self-esteem

Maslow’s Theory (humanistic theory)
He believed in a basic goodness to people and they have a natural tendency toward: SELF ACTUALIZATION

Self Actualization is the inborn drive to develop one’s talents and capacities. The ability to understand self and others and unique individuals and taking a problem-centered approach to life.

Examples of those type of people: Einstein, Gandhi and Eleanor Roosevelt

Humanistic Theory’s 3 major criticism’s
1) Naive assumptions: Suggests that humanists are unrealistic, romantic and naive about human nature

2) Poor testability/inadequate evidence: like many psychoanalytic terms/concepts, humanistic concepts (such as unconditional positive regard and self-actualization) are hard to define and test scientifically

3) Narrowness: Like trait theories, humanistic theories have been criticized for describing personality rather than explaining it.

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