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Nuclear Chemistry

What was discovered in 1896 by Antoine Henri Becquerel?
invisible rays

What did Marie Curie name Becquerel’s “invisible rays”
radioactivity

Which radioactive element did Marie and Pierre Curie discover in 1898?
Polonium and Radium

What three scientists were awarded with the Nobel prize in 1903?
Antoine Henri, Marie Curie, and Pierre Curie

What holds the nucleus together?
Strong Nuclear Force

SNF
Strong Nuclear Force

EMF
Electromagnetic Force of Repulsion

What are two factors that determine if the nucleus will be radioactive?
size of the nucleus, neutron/proton radio

How do the neutrons help to stabilize the nucleus?
By adding to the SNF without adding to the EMF of repulsion.

What elements that are too big to stabilize?
Element 84 and above

True or false: Not all isotopes are radioactive
False, all isotopes are radioactive

What elements can be stabilized?
Elements 83 and below

What is an Alpha Particle?
2 protons and 2 neutrons bonding together – identical to nucleus of a Helium atom

What is a Beta Particle?
Identical to an electron – negative charge

What is the Geiger Counter?
Produces an electric current in the presence of radiation. Tube filled with argon and helium gas under low pressure. Radiation enters tube through a window and removes electrons from gas making positively charged ions. Electrons produce a flashing light and clicking sound.

Film badge
changes color in the presence of radiation

Gamma Rays
High energy electromagnetic radiation

Background Radiation
the natural level of radiation emitted by the earth, living things, and cosmic rays (not a health risk)

Radiation Therapy
use radiation to kill cancer cells

REMS (Roentgen equivalent man)
unit of measurement used to measure the biological effect to the exposure to radiation

True or False: Do all radioisotopes decay?
Yes, all radioisotopes decay

Activity
Measure of the rate of nuclear decay

What is activity measure in?
Curies

Curie
amount of radiation released by one gram of radium in one second=37 billion nuclear disintegrations/second

Half life
Time required for one-half of the radioactive atoms of a substance to decay to products

True or false: Longer the half-life the more stable the isotope
True

Spontaneous Reaction
reaction that occurs without external cause

Collisions
One nucleus colliding with another with enough force to cause a nuclear reaction

Particle accelerator
Machine used to accelerate nuclear particles to strike a target atom

How many isotopes have been discovered?
Over 1300

Tracer
a radioisotopes that is incorporated into a molecule and its path can then be followed

Radiometric dating
uses radioisotopes to determine the age of objects

What does Carbon 14 react with?
reacts with oxygen to form radioactive CO2

What equation did Albert Einstein discover?
E = mc(squared)

Albert Einstein
Discovered that the nucleus of the atom contained immense energy and stored in concentrated form as matter that is stored in the nucleus of atoms. When mass is changed to energy, enormous amounts of energy are released. This energy is determined by the equation E=mc(squared).

What does the E stand for in E=MC2
Energy produced from the conversion of mass to energy

What does the M stand for in E=MC2
mass lost (converted to energy)

What does the C stand for in E=MC2
Speed of light (3.0 x 10(8th power) m/s

What is the speed of light?
3.0 x 10(8th power) m/s

Radioactivity
process by which particles are given off by changes in the nucleus

Radioisotope
Radioactive Isotope

True or False: Neutrons are always lost
True

How does a Geiger counter detect radiation
produces electric current by neutral nobel gases

What is Curie
Radiation released by 1 gram of radium by 1 second.

What is Curie used to measure?
Used to measure radioactive decay

What is a chain reaction
Continuous series of fission reactions

What is used in a nuclear power plant to control a chain reaction?
Control Rods

what substance is used as a coolant in a nuclear reaction?
water

Critical Mass
exact amount of U-235

Supercritical Mass
causes rapid chain reactions

Name the two radioactive products of a fission of U-235
Element 141 and 92

What is the least amount of protection needed by a person for each type of radioactive emissions
distance

Nuclear Fusion
2 lighter nuclei combine to form a heavier element

What does Nuclear Fusion produce
Produces more energy release, waste free, and abundance of raw materials (hydrogen)

What is the major obstacle to developing controlled nuclear fusion?
extremely high temperatures

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