What was discovered in 1896 by Antoine Henri Becquerel?
What did Marie Curie name Becquerel’s “invisible rays”
Which radioactive element did Marie and Pierre Curie discover in 1898?
Polonium and Radium
What three scientists were awarded with the Nobel prize in 1903?
Antoine Henri, Marie Curie, and Pierre Curie
What holds the nucleus together?
Strong Nuclear Force
Electromagnetic Force of Repulsion
What are two factors that determine if the nucleus will be radioactive?
size of the nucleus, neutron/proton radio
How do the neutrons help to stabilize the nucleus?
By adding to the SNF without adding to the EMF of repulsion.
What elements that are too big to stabilize?
Element 84 and above
True or false: Not all isotopes are radioactive
False, all isotopes are radioactive
What elements can be stabilized?
Elements 83 and below
What is an Alpha Particle?
2 protons and 2 neutrons bonding together – identical to nucleus of a Helium atom
What is a Beta Particle?
Identical to an electron – negative charge
What is the Geiger Counter?
Produces an electric current in the presence of radiation. Tube filled with argon and helium gas under low pressure. Radiation enters tube through a window and removes electrons from gas making positively charged ions. Electrons produce a flashing light and clicking sound.
changes color in the presence of radiation
High energy electromagnetic radiation
the natural level of radiation emitted by the earth, living things, and cosmic rays (not a health risk)
use radiation to kill cancer cells
REMS (Roentgen equivalent man)
unit of measurement used to measure the biological effect to the exposure to radiation
True or False: Do all radioisotopes decay?
Yes, all radioisotopes decay
Measure of the rate of nuclear decay
What is activity measure in?
amount of radiation released by one gram of radium in one second=37 billion nuclear disintegrations/second
Time required for one-half of the radioactive atoms of a substance to decay to products
True or false: Longer the half-life the more stable the isotope
reaction that occurs without external cause
One nucleus colliding with another with enough force to cause a nuclear reaction
Machine used to accelerate nuclear particles to strike a target atom
How many isotopes have been discovered?
a radioisotopes that is incorporated into a molecule and its path can then be followed
uses radioisotopes to determine the age of objects
What does Carbon 14 react with?
reacts with oxygen to form radioactive CO2
What equation did Albert Einstein discover?
E = mc(squared)
Discovered that the nucleus of the atom contained immense energy and stored in concentrated form as matter that is stored in the nucleus of atoms. When mass is changed to energy, enormous amounts of energy are released. This energy is determined by the equation E=mc(squared).
What does the E stand for in E=MC2
Energy produced from the conversion of mass to energy
What does the M stand for in E=MC2
mass lost (converted to energy)
What does the C stand for in E=MC2
Speed of light (3.0 x 10(8th power) m/s
What is the speed of light?
3.0 x 10(8th power) m/s
process by which particles are given off by changes in the nucleus
True or False: Neutrons are always lost
How does a Geiger counter detect radiation
produces electric current by neutral nobel gases
What is Curie
Radiation released by 1 gram of radium by 1 second.
What is Curie used to measure?
Used to measure radioactive decay
What is a chain reaction
Continuous series of fission reactions
What is used in a nuclear power plant to control a chain reaction?
what substance is used as a coolant in a nuclear reaction?
exact amount of U-235
causes rapid chain reactions
Name the two radioactive products of a fission of U-235
Element 141 and 92
What is the least amount of protection needed by a person for each type of radioactive emissions
2 lighter nuclei combine to form a heavier element
What does Nuclear Fusion produce
Produces more energy release, waste free, and abundance of raw materials (hydrogen)
What is the major obstacle to developing controlled nuclear fusion?
extremely high temperatures