Music 241

Listen to the excerpt. The primary rhythmic motif (short-short-short-long) is played first by which instruments in this excerpt?
horns

Listen to the excerpt. In this excerpt, the strings and which group alternate playing the main rhythmic motif of the movement?
full orchestra

How many symphonies did Beethoven complete?
nine

The rhythm of the opening motif of Beethoven’s Symphony no. 5 occurs
throughout the entire symphony

When the individual movements of a large work are related in a tangible and distinct way, the piece is said to be
cyclic.

In his late 20s, Beethoven
started to lose his hearing.

Beethoven’s assistant Anton Schindler said that Beethoven identified the s-s-s-L theme as
“fate pounding at the portal.”

One thing that the first few moments of the symphony establishes is the
rapid shifts between extreme dynamics.

Why does Beethoven add trombone, contrabassoon, and piccolo to the last movement of his Fifth Symphony?
to enrich the outer registers and increase the dynamics

The Erlking sounds menacing in part because, until the very end, he always sings
softly.

How does Schubert’s setting of Goethe’s poem compare to other previous settings?
It is longer and more musically varied.

Which correctly describes modified strophic form?
The music is similar for each stanza, but varied to fit the words.

A “strophe” is also sometimes called a
stanza

What is the word for “song” in German?
Lied

During his lifetime, Schubert
had a small but devoted following.

Who wrote the text of “Erlkönig”?
Goethe

Schubert set the father’s voice in which register?
lowest

“Erlkönig” is an example of what kind of vocal piece?
ballad

Listen to the excerpt. When the son begins to speak/sing in this excerpt, it represents a new strophe. How does Schubert modify the music in the new strophe?
a shift to minor mode, and sudden forte dynamics

Listen to the excerpt. Which character is speaking/singing?
Erlking

Listen to the excerpt. What does the piano part evoke in this excerpt?
a horse running through the forest

Berlioz’s Symphony fantastique is a good example of Romantic music because it
captures the world of the gothic and grotesque.

The main musical element that unites all five movements of the Symphonie fantastique is
Berlioz.

In the Symphonie fantastique, the idée fixe represents
the artist’s beloved.

The Symphonie fantastique begins as one kind of story and ends as another. What are the two kinds of stories?
dream; nightmare

A noisy kitchen is roughly equivalent to the dynamic level
ff.

The Symphonie fantastique is largely autobiographical and reflects Berlioz’s obsession with
Harriet Smithson

One area of the orchestra that Berlioz used more than his predecessors was the
percussion section.

Listen to the excerpt. Immediately after the blow of the guillotine, the music depicts
a severed head falling into a bucket.

Listen to the excerpt. Which section of the form is it?
A: in minor, a gloomy and ferocious march

Throughout this selection from Verdi’s La Traviata, Alfredo sings
from offstage.

Where did La Traviata premiere, in addition to several other Verdi operas?
Venice

There are similarities between the story of La Traviata and Verdi’s own life, including the fact that
he and a woman lived together without being married

Violetta’s singing on the word gioir (“enjoy”) demonstrates ecstasy in its use of
virtuosic singing style.

In this selection from Verdi’s La Traviata, Violetta must choose between
freedom and love.

Maria Callas is one of several famous female singers known as
divas.

Verdi’s La Traviata exemplifies nineteenth-century Italian opera because it
emphasizes the voice and not the orchestra.

When Violetta sings very high notes quickly, it reflects her
(temporary) decision to dedicate herself to pleasure alone.

When Violetta is unsure of herself, she sings
in recitative.

Listen to the excerpt. This type of melody is known as
virtuosic.

Listen to the excerpt. This excerpt alternates between
aria and accompanied recitative.

Listen to the excerpt. Here, Alfredo sings in a
lyrical style.

Listen to the excerpt. This is
Loge’s Leitmotif.

Listen to the excerpt. The fanfare-like figure of this Leitmotif signifies
the sword.

Listen to the excerpt. The two Leitmotifs heard are
fate and magic fire.

Wagner went into exile because
he participated in the 1848 revolutions.

In this scene, Brünnhilde is being punished because
she disobeyed her father.

A Leitmotif is
a brief musical phrase associated with a person, event, or idea.

Wagner thought that contemporary opera
placed too much emphasis on the singers.

Which of the following is an element common to both Wagner’s Ring Cycle and J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings?
a ring that gives great power, but causes great sorrow

Wagner’s music was interpreted by some of his contemporaries as
ear-splitting noise.

The Leitmotif for Wotan’s spear is
steady and confident, reflecting his authority.

Wagner’s vocal lines are
declamatory, so his audience can understand the text.

In his lifetime, Wagner was admired for his
progressive harmonic idiom.

Please listen to the excerpt. Which of the following fragments can NOT be heard in this excerpt?
“a slow, rising three-note figure”

Please listen to the excerpt. What is the overall dynamic level?
piano moving to forte

Please listen to the excerpt. This excerpt features the
pentatonic scale.

The whole-tone scale obscures the tonal center because it
does not have any half steps.

Like the paintings of the impressionists and poets symbolists, Debussy
placed greater emphasis on timbre (color and sound)

The climax of Voiles is achieved by a shift in
dynamics.

The title Voiles can mean
“sails” or “veils.”

In Voiles, Debussy employs both the
whole tone and pentatonic scales.

Because of the way the sound is produced, a piano is considered a
percussion instrument.

During his lifetime, Debussy
worked in obscurity.

Which melodic fragment helps to obscure the downbeat the most in Voiles?
2

The gamelan is native to
Indonesia.

When it originated, ragtime was thought to be
a threat to the moral fabric of society.

Although Joplin made a piano roll of Maple Leaf Rag, it may sound different than his performances because
the piano roll might have been altered after Joplin made it.

The C section, or “Trio,” of Maple Leaf Rag features a
key change.

Please listen to the excerpt. In which section of this excerpt can the “stride bass” pattern be heard?
second part of the excerpt

Please listen to the excerpt. Which sections can be heard in this excerpt?
A, then B

Please listen to the excerpt. This excerpt features
hemiola.

The musical device that uses accents occurring off the beat is called
syncopation.

Even though Maple Leaf Rag has complex rhythms, it is written in what meter?
duple

The sound that occurs when groups of three happen at the same time as groups of two is called
hemiola.

When two melodies in different registers are woven together, it is called what kind of melody?
compound

Where did ragtime originate?
Chicago

Maple Leaf Rag earned Joplin
enough money to cover basic living expenses.

“Cotton Tail” owes its harmonic structure to which American composer?
Gershwin

In jazz, the underlying rhythmic pattern is sometimes called what?
the groove

The main tune of a jazz piece is called the
head.

As a composer, Duke Ellington was particularly known for his
orchestration.

In addition to leading his band, Duke Ellington played what instrument?
piano

The form of 32-bar standard song form is
AABA.

Please listen to the excerpt. In which part of this excerpt can a shout chorus be heard?
in the first half of the excerpt

Please listen to the excerpt. Which instruments have the main melody?
trumpet and tenor saxophone

Please listen to the excerpt. In the beginning of this excerpt, there is
call-and-response.

Jazz harmonies are different from classical harmonies in that
classical chords usually have three notes; jazz chords have more.

At the Cotton Club
only white patrons were allowed, but the staff was black.

In the 1920s and 1930s, this area of New York City was experiencing a rebirth of art, literature, and music.
Harlem

Compared to the typical rondo form, what is unusual about the rondo form of Copland’s “Hoe-Down” from Rodeo?
The main melody is not played until the second A section.

Which of the following is a rhythmic element that Copland uses throughout “Hoe-Down” from Rodeo?
syncopation

How does Copland compose to get the “wide open spaces” sound for which he is famous?
using both very high and very low notes

Please listen to the excerpt. Which of the following instruments is NOT heard as a solo instrument in this excerpt?
flute

Please listen to the excerpt. In this excerpt, the orchestra imitates
a square dance band tuning up.

Please listen to the excerpt. Which best describes the rhythmic activity of this excerpt?
duple meter, with increasing syncopation

What is the first fiddle tune Copland uses in “Hoe-Down” from Rodeo?
“Bonaparte’s Retreat”

Who choreographed Rodeo?
Agnes de Mille

In the 1940s, Copland was investigated by Congress because of
his alleged Communist sympathies.

Copland’s compositional training focused on
modernist techniques.

The instrumentation of Rodeo is a
full orchestra

In addition to works for the concert and ballet stage, Copland also composed music for
Hollywood films.

Please listen to the excerpt. What is the texture of this excerpt?
homophony

Please listen to the excerpt. In this excerpt two characters sing: Anita and Tony. Which of the following is true?
Anita sings a rather choppy melody. Tony’s melody is much more lyrical.

Please listen to the excerpt. What is ironic about this excerpt?
The Sharks and the Jets are singing the same melody even though they hate each other.

The texture of “Tonight” is
homophonic, then polyphonic.

The contrasts between the warring gangs and Tony and Maria center on the way that which word is sung?
“tonight”

Conventionally in opera, when couples are in love, they sing
the same melody to each other.

West Side Story is a
musical.

West Side Story is a modern retelling of
Romeo and Juliet.

The Broadway musical evolved from
operetta.

How many main melodies are heard in “Tonight”?
two

Which job did Leonard Bernstein never perform?
singer

In an additive form,
things start out simple and get increasingly complex

In the opera Einstein on the Beach, the character of Einstein
never sings, but plays the violin

The piece is called “Knee Play 1” because
it combines two sections together like a knee joint.

Which of the following is NOT heard in “Knee Play 1”?
male speaker

The harmony of “Knee Play 1” is
very simple tonality.

Glass creates variety among the variations in “Knee Play 1” by
altering the rhythm.

Philip Glass has studied in all of the following places except
Brazil.

Please listen to the excerpt. In this excerpt, the sopranos sing
“do-re-mi.”

Please listen to the excerpt. Which timbres are heard in this excerpt?
organ and vocal ensemble

Please listen to the excerpt. In this excerpt, the text describes
whatever the audience reads into it.

Minimalism is characterized by
brief ideas repeating and varying incrementally over a long span of time.

Which compositional device is NOT used in “Knee Play 1”?
polytonality

Glass believes that modern music
should reach out directly to audiences.

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