Intro to Anthropology – Exam 1

Anthropology –
the study of humankind in all times and places
Ethnocentrism
the belief that the ways of one’s own culture are the only proper ones
Culture
theories about the world and reality based on the assumptions and values of one’s own culture
Applied Anthropology
use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems
Medical Anthropology
specialization that brings theoretical and applied approaches from cultural and biological anthropology to the study of human sickness and health
Cultural
study of customary patterns in human behavior, thought and feelings
Culture
society’s shared and social transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions which are used to make sense of experience
Ethnography
detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork
Fieldwork
term for on site location research
Participant observation
learning the culture through social participation and personal observation
Ethnology
study of analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical POV explain similarities and differences
Linguistic
study of human languages
Discourse
an extended communication on a particular subject
Archaeology
study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environment data
Bioarchaeology
archaeological study of human remains
Cultural resource management
concerned with survey and or excavation of archaeological and historical remains
Physical anthropology
systematic study of humans as biological organisms
Molecular – study of genes and genetic relationship
Paleoanthropology
study of biological changes through time to understand the origins and predecessors of the present human species
Biocultural
an approach the focuses on the interaction of biology and culture
Primatology
study of living and fossil primates
Forensic
analysis of human skeletal remains for legal purposes
Empirical
an approach based on observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith
Hypothesis
tentative explanation of the relationship among certain phenomena
Theory
explanation of natural phenomena supported by relatable body of data
Doctrine
assertion of opinion or belief formally handed down by an authority as true and indisputable
Artifact
any object fashioned or altered by humans
Material culture
durable aspects of culture such as tools, structures and art
Fossil
preserved remains of past life forms
Soil marks
stains that show up on the surface of recently plowed fields the reveal an archaeological site
Midden
refuse or garbage disposal area in an archaeological site
Grid system
system for recording date from an archaeological excavation into three dimensions
Datum point
starting point or reference for grid system
Relative dating
around the time
Absolute dating
exact dates
Key consultants
members of the society being studied who provide information that helps the researchers understand the meaning of what they observe
Informal interview
unstructured, open ended conversation in everyday life
Formal interview
structured question – answer session
Elicting interview
activities and objects used to dram out individuals and encourage them to recall and share information
Human relations area files
cross indexed enthographic, biocultural, and archaeological data
Informed consent
formal recorded agreement between the subject and the researcher to participate in research
Globalization
shown in movements of natural resources, trade goods, human labor, finance capital, information, infectious diseases
Chromosomes
in cell nucleus. Structures visible during cellular division containing long strands of DNA combined with a protein
DNA
genetic material consisting of a complex molecule whose base structure directs the synthesis of proteins
Chromatid
1 half of the X shape of chromosomes visible once replication is complete
Alleles
alternate forms of a single gene
Genome
complete structure sequence of DNA for a species
Mitosis
kind of cell division that produces new cells having exactly the same number of chromosome pairs
Meiosis
kind of of cell division that produces sex cells each of which has half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism
Homozygous
chromosome pair that bear identical alleles for a single gene
Heterozygous
chromosome pair that bears different alleles for a single gene
Genotype
the alleles possessed for a particular trait
Dominant
term to describe the ability of an allele for a trait to mask the presence of another allele
Recessive
term to describe an allele for a trait whose expression is masked by the presence of a dominant allele
Phenotype
observable or testable appearance of an organism that may or may not reflect a particular genotype
Hemoglobin
the protein that carries oxygen in the red blood cells
Polygentic inheritance
two or more genes contributing to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristic
Gene flow
introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another
Adaptation
series of beneficial adjustments to the environment
Sickle – cell anemia
mutation of hemoglobin protein
Clines
the gradual changes in the frequency of an allele or trait over space
Macroevolution
evolution of the species level or leading to the formation of new species
Speciation
the process of forming new species
Cladogenesis
speciation through branching mechanism whereby an ancestral population gives rise to two or more descendant populations
Anagensis
sustained directional shift in a population’s average characteristics
Punctuated equilibria
model of macroevolutionary change that suggests evolution occurs via long periods of stability or stasis punctuated by periods of rapid change
nocturnal
active at night and at rest during the day
arboreal
living in the tress
diurnal
active during the day and at rest at night
binocular vision
vision with increased depth perception from two eyes set next to eachother allowing their visual fields to overlap
stereoscopic vision
complete 3D vision or depth perception images from each eye
opposable
ability to bring the thumb or big toe in contact with tips of the other digits on the same or foot to grab objects
prosimians
subdivison within the primate order based on shared anatomical characteristics lemurs, lorises, tarsiers
anthropoids
New World and Old World Monkeys
strepsihines
based on shared genetic characteristics; lemurs and lorisies
haplorhines
New World, Old World, Apes
prehensile
ability to grasp
brachiation
moving from branch to branch using the arms
community
unit of social organization composed of fifty or more individuals who together inhabit a large geographic area
dominance hierarchy
observed ranking system in animal groups ordering individuals from high to low standing
grooming
ritual of cleaning another animal
tool
object used to facilitate some task or activity