Indian Literature Essay
Indian literature, writings of the Indian subcontinent, produced there in a variety of languages, including Sanskrit, Prakrit, Pali, Bengali, Bihari, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Oriya, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, and Sindhi. A brief treatment of Indian literature follows. For full treatment, see South Asian Arts: Literature. The earliest Indian literature took the form of the canonical Hindu sacred writings, known as the Veda, which were written in Sanskrit. To the Veda were added prose commentaries such as the Brahma?
as and the Upani? hads. The production of Sanskrit literature extended from about 1400 bc to ad 1200 and reached its height of development in the 1st to 7th centuries ad. In addition to sacred and philosophical writings, such genres as erotic and devotional lyrics, court poetry, plays, and narrative folktales emerged. Because Sanskrit was identified with the Brahminical religion of the Vedas, reform movements such as Buddhism and Jainism adopted other literary languages, e. g. , Pali and Ardhamagadhi, respectively.
Out of these and other derivative languages there evolved the modern languages of northern India. Theliterature of those languages depended largely on the ancient Indian background, which includes the Sanskrit epics, the Mahabharata and Ramaya? a, the Krishna story as told in the Bhagavata-Pura? a, the other Puranic legends, and the fable anthologies. In addition, the Sanskrit philosophies were the source of philosophical writing in the later literatures, and the Sanskrit schools of rhetoric were of great importance for the development of court poetry in many of the modern literatures.
The South Indian language of Tamil is an exception to this pattern of Sanskrit influence because it had a classical tradition of its own. Urdu and Sindhi are other exceptions, having arisen out of an Islamic background. Beginning in the 19th century, British and Western literary models in general had a great impact on Indian literature, the most striking result being the introduction of the use of vernacular prose on a major scale. Such previously unknown forms as the novel and short story began to be adopted by Indian writers, as did realism and a new interest in social questions and psychological description.
See also specific Indian literatures. The Ancient Indian Literature The ancient literature is the crowning glory of the Indian civilization. No other part of the world has produced such voluminous literature of knowledge and wisdom. The Vedas are the most celebrated possessions of the mankind. The Rig Veda is the oldest literary work in the history of the world. The Vedas are the exquisite expressions of the Divinity. They are the first significant utterances on the lips of man. The ancient Indian literature is the glorious gift of the Indian civilization to the world.
It comprises of the illustrious scriptures. The Indian scriptures can be broadly classified into two categories: (1) The Shruti literature (2) The Smriti literature. Shruti is concerned with ‘the heard’ or ‘the revealed’. Smriti is concerned with ‘the remembered. ’ The Vedas and the Upanishads are considered as theShruti literature. The Sanskrit root ‘shrut’ means ‘to hear’. In ancient times, while doing their tapasya and sadhana, the great sages ‘heard’ the divine truths. Whatever was ‘heard’ was presented in the Vedas and the Upanishads.
Thus they came to be known as the Shruti literature. Smriti literature is concerned with ‘that what is remembered’. The literature which was based on the knowledge acquired through the experience or the tradition was the Smriti literature. Generally, the Smriti literature is based on the Shruti. The famous Manu-Smriti and other smritis and shastrasconstitute the Smriti literature. The guidelines for ethics, moral obligations, social codes, customs etc. are found in the Smriti literature. The great epics Mahabharata and Ramayana also belong to the Smriti literature.
While the Shruti literature is veritable and inviolable, theSmriti literature may get modified under the influence of time and place. ndian Literature Abroad (ILA) With 22 scheduled languages, 122 regional languages, four classical languages, (Sanskrit, Tamil, Kannada and Telugu) thousands of mother tongues and countless dialects, India can claim a unique linguistic and literary history. The different language clusters in India are distinctive but share a common heritage and core identity. Nurturing its plural and diverse traditions, emergent India is engaged in an act of constant and ongoing cultural translation and interpretation.
Novels, short fiction, poetry and experimental writing are flourishing, along with a vigorous tradition in literary criticism. Seeking inspiration from their mother tongues, Indian writers combine contemporary reach with classical traditions. While Indian literature in English is widely read and appreciated, the vibrant writing in the various Indian languages is not currently accessible to the rest of the world due to a lack of quality translations and focused promotion. ILA aims to correct this imbalance by projecting and promoting the plural Indian literatures internationally.
The ILA project has been initiated by the Ministry of Culture, Government of India, to support and facilitate translation and promotion of literary heritage and contemporary literature from the Indian languages into major foreign languages (especially those recognized by UNESCO). Indian Literature Abroad (ILA) seeks to open windows to the polyphonic voices coming out of India. To achieve this goal, ILA is working on ongoing translation commissions, and also on workshops, collaborations and fellowships. The books listed here are but a sampler of the incredible riches of contemporary Indian writing.
ILA has a distinguished Advisory Committee, with the Dr U. R. Ananthamurthy as the chairman, and including well-known names from the fields of literature, publishing and translation. Namita Gokhale, writer, publisher and co-director of the Jaipur Literature Festival, is member-secretary of the project. The members of the committee include U. R. Ananthamurthy, Namita Gokhale, Ashok Vajpeyi, K. Satchidanandan, Urvashi Butalia, Mini Krishnan, N. Kamala, Varyam Singh, Oscar Pujol, Supriya Chaudhari, Sabaree Mitra and Zikrur Rahman.
Tagore segment: Malashri Lal . All contracts and negotiations will be carried out with the support of ILA Comparative Literature in India ————————————————- Amiya Dev, Calcutta Abstract In his article, “Comparative Literature in India,” Amiya Dev bases his discussion on the fact that India has many languages and literatures thus representing an a priori situation and conditions of diversity. He therefore argues that to speak of an Indian literature in the singular is problematic.
Nonetheless, Dev also observes that to speak of Indian literature in the plural is equally problematic. Such a characterization, he urges, either overlooks or obscures manifest interrelations and affinities. His article compares the unity and the diversity thesis, and identifies the relationship between Indian commonality and differences as the prime site of comparative literature in India. He surveys the current scholarly and intellectual positions on unity and diversity and looks into the post-structuralist doubt of homogenization of differences in the name of unity.
Dev also examines the search for common denominators and a possible pattern of togetherness and Dev underlines location and located inter-Indian reception as an aspect of interliterariness. It is t/here Dev perceives Indian literature, that is, not as a fixed or determinate entity but as an ongoing and interliterary process: Indian language and literature ever in the re/making World literature tour: India The tour heads off into familiar territory for this month, with a stopover in India. But what about Indian literature in languages other than English? * Share0 * *
* inShare0 * ————————————————- Email * ————————————————- Richard Lea * ————————————————- theguardian. com, Monday 18 July 2011 08. 03 EDT * ————————————————- Jump to comments (29) Frequent flier … an Air India jet flies low over a Mumbai slum. Photograph: Daniel Berehulak / Getty Images Some might have thought it ambitious, others foolhardy, but the World literature tour returns in triumph from a stop in Indonesia with more than 80 recommendations.
There’s Pramoedya Ananta Toer of course, saluted by Dr Sebastian Groes as the Conrad of the East, even though “such a claim would misrepresent the extraordinary powers – and life – of this wonderful writer, and selfless human being”, but there’s also Ahmad Tohari, hailed by sastraalibi as a “True voice from [the] Indonesian countryside”, Dewi Lestari, cited by Zaa_rathustra as “my favorite author in Indonesia”, and many, many more. Thanks again for all these marvellous suggestions.
With many posters professing a similar level of ignorance to my own when it comes to Indonesian letters, the discussion below was perhaps most memorable for the image of uniriri’s father reading out novels from the Api di Bukit Menoreh series “whilst acting out all the martial arts Silat moves”. Despite helpful links from posters such as irhafidz andBambangS I suspect that only reading will counteract the feeling of literary uncertainty surrounding the destination – a mood which seems to be borne out in much of the voting for the tour’s next destination.
With strong showings for Argentina and Japan, voters seem to have plumped for literary cultures rather more familiar on western bookshelves. Thirty years after the publication of Midnight’s Children, the links between western publishers and India are so strong that this month’s stopover almost feels like visiting an old friend. Booker winners galorefollowed after Salman Rushdie’s 1981 success, making Mumbai as much part of our literary landscape as Manchester, the hustle and bustle of New Delhi a familiar mirror of the hurly burly of New York.
But as well as plumping for your favourite Vikram Seth – are you A Suitable Boy, or do you prefer the views from The Golden Gate? – we’re looking for leads into the languages beyond the colonial. We’re searching for books which capture something of the Indian experience – interpreted in the widest possible way. We’re after novels, plays, poetry and non-fiction, whether in English or not yet translated. We’re even after writing which captures something of the Indian diaspora.
All you need to do is visit the boxes below, filling in the country – that’s India this month – the title, the author, the translator and some indication of why it’s great. And don’t forget to fill in your vote for our next destination. Even if you haven’t got an Indian diamond to suggest, your votes still count – anyone for Colombia? ————————————————- Indian literature From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Part of a series on the| Culture of India| | History| People| Languages| Mythology and folklore[show]| Cuisine|
Festivals| Religion| Art[show]| Literature[show]| Music and performing arts[show]| Media[show]| Sport| Monuments[show]| Symbols[show]| * Culture portal * India portal| * v * t * e| Indian literature| * Assamese * Bengali * Bhojpuri * English * Gujarati * Hindi * Kannada * Kashmiri * Malayalam * Manipuri * Marathi * Mizo * Nepali * Oriya * Punjabi * Rajasthani * Sanskrit * Sindhi * Tamil * Telugu * Urdu| * v * t * e| Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter.
The Republic of India has 22 officially recognized languages. All dates about the ancient Indian literature are not only uncertain, but are contested. European scholars from 18th century onwards estimated dates of various texts based on methods that Indian scholars consider arbitrary. The earliest works of Indian literature were orally transmitted. Sanskrit literature begins with the Rig Veda a collection of sacred hymns dating to the period 1500–1200 BCE. The Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata appeared towards the end of the first millennium BCE.
Classical Sanskrit literature developed rapidly during the first few centuries of the first millennium BCE, as did the Tamil Sangam literature, and the Pali Canon. In the medieval period, literature in Kannada and Telugu appeared in the 9th and 11th centuries respectively.  Later, literature in Marathi, Bengali, various dialects of Hindi, Persian and Urdu began to appear as well. Early in the 20th century, Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore became India’s first Nobel laureate.
In contemporary Indian literature, there are two major literary awards; these are the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship and the Jnanpith Award. Eight Jnanpith awards each have been awarded in Hindi and Kannada, followed by five in Bengali, four in oriya,four in Malayalam, and three in Gujarati, Marathi and Urdu and 2 each in Assamese, Tamil and Telugu Contents [hide] * 1 Indian literature in archaic Indian languages * 1. 1 Vedic literature * 1. 2 Epic Sanskrit literature * 1. 3 Classical Sanskrit literature * 1. 4 Prakrit literature.
* 1. 5 Pali literature * 2 Indian literature in common Indian languages * 2. 1 Assamese literature * 2. 2 Bengali literature * 2. 3 Bhojpuri literature * 2. 4 English literature * 2. 5 Hindi literature * 2. 6 Gujarati literature * 2. 7 Kannada literature * 2. 8 Kashmiri literature * 2. 9 Malayalam literature * 2. 10 Manipuri literature * 2. 11 Marathi literature * 2. 12 Mizo literature * 2. 13 Nepali literature * 2. 14 Oriya literature * 2. 15 Punjabi literature * 2. 16 Rajasthani literature * 2. 17 Sanskrit literature.
* 2. 18 Sindhi literature * 2. 19 Tamil literature * 2. 20 Telugu literature * 2. 21 Urdu literature * 3 Indian literature in foreign languages * 3. 1 Indian Persian literature * 3. 2 Literature from North East India * 4 Journalism in India * 4. 1 Journalism During the Emergency Period * 5 Awards * 6 See also * 7 Footnotes * 8 External links ————————————————- Indian literature in archaic Indian languages[edit source | editbeta] History of literature by region or country| General topics|
* * Basic topics * Literary terms * * Criticism * TheoryTypes * * Epic * Novel * Poetry * * Prose * RomanceLists * * Books * Authors| Middle-Eastern| * * Ancient * Sumerian * * Babylonian * Ancient Egyptian * * Hebrew * Pahlavi * Persian * * Arabic * Israeli| European| * * Greek * Latin * Early Medieval * (Matter of Rome * Matter of FranceMatter of Britain) * * Medieval * RenaissanceModern * * Structuralism * Poststructuralism * Deconstruction * * Modernism * Postmodernism * * Post-colonialism * Hypertexts| North and South American|
* * United States * Canadian * * Mexican * Jamaican * Latin American * * Argentine * Brazilian * * Colombian * Cuban * Peruvian| Australasian| * * Australian * New Zealand| Asian| East / Southeast * * Chinese * Japanese * * Korean * VietnameseSouth * Sanskrit * * Indian * Pakistani * * Assamese * Bengali * * Gujurati * Hindi * Kannada * * Kashmiri * Malayalam * * Marathi * Nepali * * Rajasthani * Sindhi * * Tamil * Telugu * Urdu * Indian writing in English| African| * * Moroccan * Nigerian * * South African * Swahili| Related topics|
* History of science fiction * List of years in literature * Literature by nationality * History of theatre * History of ideas * Intellectual history| Literature portal| * v * t * e| History of literature by era| Bronze Age| * * Sumerian * Ancient Egyptian * Akkadian| Classical| * * Chinese * Greek * Hebrew * * Latin * Pahlavi * Pali * * Prakrit * Sanskrit * Syriac * Tamil| Early Medieval| * Matter of Rome * Matter of France * Matter of Britain * * Armenian * Byzantine * * Georgian * Kannada * * Persian * Turkish| Medieval|
* * Old Bulgarian * Old English * * Middle English * Arabic * * Armenian * Byzantine * * Catalan * Dutch * French * * Georgian * German * * Indian * Old Irish * Italian * * Japanese * Kannada * * Nepal Bhasa * Norse * * Persian * Telugu * Turkish * Welsh| Early Modern| * * Renaissance * Baroque| Modern by century| * * 18th * 19th * 20th * 21st| Literature portal| * v * t * e| Vedic literature[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Vedas Examples of early works written in Vedic Sanskrit include the holy Hindu texts, such as the core Vedas.
Other examples include the Sulba Sutras, which are some of the earliest texts on geometry.. Epic Sanskrit literature[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Indian epic poetry Ved Vyasa’s Mahabharata and Valmiki’s Ramayana, written in Epic Sanskrit, are regarded as the greatest Sanskrit epics. Classical Sanskrit literature[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Sanskrit literature The famous poet and playwright Kalidasa wrote one epic: Raghuvamsha (Dynasty of Raghu) ; it was written in Classical Sanskrit rather than Epic Sanskrit. Other examples of works written in Classical Sanskrit include the Pa?
ini’s Ashtadhyayi which standardized the grammar and phonetics of Classical Sanskrit. The Laws of Manu is an important text in Hinduism. Kalidasa is often considered to be the greatest playwright in Sanskrit literature, and one of the greatest poets in Sanskrit literature, whoseRecognition of Shakuntala and Meghaduuta are the most famous Sanskrit plays. He occupies the same position in Sanskrit literature that Shakespeare occupies in English literature. Some other famous plays were Mricchakatika by Shudraka, Svapna Vasavadattam by Bhasa, and Ratnavali by Sri Harsha.
Later poetic works include Geeta Govinda by Jayadeva. Some other famous works are Chanakya’s Arthashastra and Vatsyayana’s Kamasutra. Prakrit literature[edit source | editbeta] The most notable Prakrit languages were the Jain Prakrit (Ardhamagadhi), Pali, Maharashtri and Shauraseni. One of the earliest extant Prakrit works is Hala’s anthology of poems in Maharashtri, the Gaha Sattasai, dating to the 3rd to 5th century CE. Kalidasa and Harsha also used Maharashtri in some of their plays and poetry. In Jainism, many Svetambara works were written in Maharashtri.
Many of Asvagho? a’s plays were written in Shauraseni as were a sizable number of Jain works and Rajasekhara’s Karpuramanjari. Canto 13 of the Bha?? ikavya is written in what is called “like the vernacular” (bha? asama), that is, it can be read in two languages simultaneously: Prakrit and Sanskrit.  Pali literature[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Pali Canon The Pali Canon is mostly of Indian origin. Later Pali literature however was mostly produced outside of the mainland Indian subcontinent, particularly in Sri Lanka andSoutheast Asia.
Pali literature includes Buddhist philosophical works, poetry and some grammatical works. Major works in Pali are Jataka tales, Dhammapada, Atthakatha, and Mahavamsa. Some of the major Pali grammarians were Kaccayana, Moggallana and Vararuci (who wrote Prakrit Prakash). ————————————————- Indian literature in common Indian languages[edit source | editbeta] Assamese literature[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Assamese literature | This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2013)| The Charyapadas are often cited as the earliest example of Assamese literature. The Charyapadas are Buddhist songs composed in the 8th to 12th centuries. These writings bear similarities to Oriya and Bengali languages as well. The phonological and morphological traits of these songs bear very strong resemblance to Assamese some of which are extant. After the Charyapadas, the period may again be split into (a) Pre-Vaishnavite and (b) Vaishnative sub-periods.
The earliest known Assamese writer is Hema Saraswati, who wrote a small poem “Prahlada Charita”. In the time of the King Indranarayana (1350–1365) of Kamatapur the two poets Harihara Vipra and Kaviratna Saraswati composed Asvamedha Parva and Jayadratha Vadha respectively. Another poet named Rudra Kandali translated Drona Parva into Assamese. But the most well-known poet of the Pre-Vaishnavite sub period is Madhav Kandali, who rendered Valmiki’s Ramayana into Assamese verse (Kotha Ramayana, 11th century) under the patronage of Mahamanikya, a Kachari king of Jayantapura.
The most famous modern Assamese writers are Lakshminath Bezbaruah, Indira Goswami, Nirupama Borgohain, Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya, Homen Borgohain,Bhabendra Nath Saikia, Amulya Barua, Nabakanta Barua, Atul Chandra Hazarika, Nalini Bala Devi, Nirmal Prabha Bordoloi, Mahim Bora, Arupa Kalita Patangia, Syed Abdul Malik, Bhabananda Deka, Purobi Bormudoi, Mamoni Raisom Goswami, Arun Sharma, Anuradha Sharma Pujari, Atulananda Deva Goswami, Hiren Bhattacharyya,Hridayananda Gogoi, etc. Bengali literature[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Bengali literature
See also: Bengali novels, Bengali poetry, and Bengali science fiction The first evidence of Bengali literature is known as Charyapada or Charyageeti, which were Buddhist hymns from the 8th century. Charyapada is in the oldest known written form of Bengali. The famous Bengali linguist Harprashad Shastri discovered the palm leaf Charyapada manuscript in the Nepal Royal Court Library in 1907. The most internationally famous Bengali writer is Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 for his work “Gitanjali”.
He wrote the national anthem of India and Bangladesh namely, “Jana Gana Mana” and “Amar Sonar Bangla”, respectively. He was the first Asian who won the Nobel Prize. Rabindranath has written enormous amount of Poems, Songs, Essays, Novels, Plays and Short-stories. His songs remain popular and are still widely sung in Bengal. Kazi Nazrul Islam, who is one generation younger than Tagore, is also equally popular, valuable, and influential in socio-cultural context of the Bengal, though virtually unknown in foreign countries. And among later generation poets, Jibanananda Das is considered the most important figure.
 Other famous Indian Bengali writers were Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Sunil Gangopadhyay etc. Sukanta Bhattacharya(15 August 1926 – 13 May 1947) was a Bengali poet and playwright. Along with Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nazrul Islam, he was one of the key figures of modern Bengali poetry, despite the fact that most of his works had been in publication posthumously. During his life, his poems were not widely circulated, but after his death his reputation grew to the extent that he became one of the most popular Bengali poet of the 20th century.
Bengali is the second most commonly spoken language in India (after Hindi). As a result of the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th and 20th centuries, many of India’s most famous, and relatively recent, literature, poetry, and songs are in Bengali. In the history of Bengali literature there has been only one path-breaking literary movement by a group of poets and artists who called themselves Hungryalists Bhojpuri literature[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Bhojpuri#Bhojpuri literature English literature[edit source | editbeta].
Main article: Indian English literature Further information: Indian English In the 20th century, several Indian writers have distinguished themselves not only in traditional Indian languages but also in English, a language inherited from the British. As a result of British colonisation, India has developed its own unique dialect of English known as Indian English. Indian English typically follows British spelling and pronunciation as opposed to American, and books published in India reflect this phenomenon.
Indian English literature, however, tends to utilise more internationally recognisable vocabulary then does colloquial Indian English, in the same way that American English literature does so as compared to American slang. India’s only Nobel laureate in literature was the Bengali writer Rabindranath Tagore, who wrote some of his work originally in English, and did some of his own English translations from Bengali. India’s best selling English-language novelist of all-time is the contemporary writer Chetan Bhagat.
More recent major writers in English who are either Indian or of Indian origin and derive much inspiration from Indian themes are R. K. Narayan, Vikram Seth, Salman Rushdie, Arundhati Roy, Raja Rao, Amitav Ghosh, Rohinton Mistry, Vikram Chandra, Mukul Kesavan, Raj Kamal Jha, Vikas Swarup, Khushwant Singh,Shashi Tharoor, Nayantara Sehgal, Anita Desai, Kiran Desai, Ashok Banker, Shashi Deshpande, Jhumpa Lahiri, Kamala Markandaya, Gita Mehta, Manil Suri, Ruskin Bond, Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni andBharati Mukherjee. In the 1950s, the Writers Workshop collective in Calcutta was founded by the poet and essayist P.
Lal to advocate and publish Indian writing in English. The press was the first to publish Pritish Nandy, Sasthi Brata, and others; it continues to this day to provide a forum for English writing in India. In modern times, Indian poetry in English was typified by two very different poets. Dom Moraes, winner of theHawthornden Prize at the age of 19 for his first book of poems A Beginning went on to occupy a pre-eminent position among Indian poets writing in English. Nissim Ezekiel, who came from India’s tiny Bene Israel Jewish community, created a voice and place for Indian poets writing in English and championed their work.
Their contemporaries in English poetry in India were Jayanta Mahapatra, Gieve Patel, A. K. Ramanujan, Arun Kolatkar, Adil Jussawalla, Dilip Chitre, Arvind Krishna Mehrotra, Eunice De Souza, Kersi Katrak,P. Lal and Kamala Das among several others. Younger generations of poets writing in English include Makarand Paranjape, Nandini Sahu, Mani Rao, Vivek Narayanan, Arundhathi Subramaniam, Jeet Thayil,Ranjit Hoskote, Sudeep Sen, Jerry Pinto among others. A generation of exiles also sprang from the Indian diaspora. Among these are names like Agha Shahid Ali, Sujata Bhatt, Richard Crasta, Yuyutsu Sharma and Vikram Seth.
In recent years, English-language writers of Indian origin are being published in the West at an increasing rate. Salman Rushdie, Arundhati Roy, Kiran Desai and Arvind Adiga have won the prestigious Man Booker Prize, with Salman Rushdie going on to win the Booker of Bookers. Hindi literature[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Hindi literature Hindi literature started as religious and philosophical poetry in medieval periods in dialects like Avadhi and Brij. The most famous figures from this period are Kabir and Tulsidas.
In modern times, the Khadidialect became more prominent and Sanskrit. Chandrakanta, written by Devaki Nandan Khatri, is considered to be the first work of prose in Hindi. Munshi Premchand was the most famous Hindi novelist. The chhayavadi poets include Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’, Prem Bajpai, Jaishankar Prasad, Sumitranandan Pant, and Mahadevi Varma. Other renowned poets include Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’, Maithili Sharan Gupt, Agyeya, Harivansh Rai Bachchan, andDharmveer Bharti. Gujarati literature[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Gujarati literature.
Gandhi extensively wrote in Gujarati Gujarati literature’s history may be traced to the 1000 AD. Since then literature has flourished till date. Well known laureates of Gujarati literature areHemchandracharya, Narsinh Mehta, Mirabai, Akho, Premanand Bhatt, Shamal Bhatt, Dayaram, Dalpatram, Narmad, Govardhanram Tripathi, Gandhi, K. M. Munshi,Umashankar Joshi, Suresh Joshi, Pannalal Patel and Rajendra Keshavlal Shah. Gujarat Vidhya Sabha, Gujarat Sahitya Sabha, and Gujarati Sahitya Parishad are Ahmedabad based literary institutions promoting the spread of Gujarati literature.
Umashankar Joshi, Pannalal Patel and Rajendra Keshavlal Shah have won the Jnanpith Award, the highest literary award in India. Kannada literature[edit source | editbeta] Kannada writer and Jnanpith Awardwinner for the year 1994, U. R. Ananthamurthy Main article: Kannada literature The oldest existing record of Kannada poetry in tripadi metre is the Kappe Arabhatta record of 700 CE. The folk form of literature began earlier than any other literature in Kannada. “Gajashtaka” of Shivamara, “Chudamani” of Thumbalacharya are examples of early literature.
Kavirajamarga by King NripatungaAmoghavarsha I (850 CE) is the earliest existing literary work in Kannada. It is a writing on literary criticism and poetics meant to standardize various written Kannada dialects used in literature in previous centuries. The book makes reference to Kannada works by early writers such as King Durvinita of the 6th century and Ravikirti, the author of the Aihole record of 636 CE. An early extant prose work, the Vaddaradhane by Shivakotiacharya of 900 CE provides an elaborate description of the life of Bhadrabahu of Shravanabelagola.
Since the earliest available Kannada work is one on grammar and a guide of sorts to unify existing variants of Kannada grammar and literary styles, it can be safely assumed that literature in Kannada must have started several centuries earlier.  Pampa who popularised Champu style which is unique to Kannada wrote the epic “Vikramarjuna Vijaya”. He also wrote “Adipurana”. Other famous poets like Ponna and Ranna wrote “Shantipurana” and “Ghadayudha” respectively. The jain poet Nagavarma_2 wrote “Kavyavalokana”, “Karnatabhashabhushana” and “Vardhamanapurana” .
Janna was the author of “Yashodhara Charitha”. Rudhrabhatta and Durgashima wrote “Jagannatha Vijaya” and “Panchatantra” respectively. The works of the medieval period are based onJain and Hindu principles. The Vachana Sahitya tradition of the 12th century is purely native and unique in world literature.  It is the sum of contributions by all sections of society. Vachanas were pithy comments on that period’s social, religious and economic conditions. More importantly, they held a mirror to the seed of social revolution, which caused a radical re-examination of the ideas of caste, creed and religion.
Some of the important writers of Vachana literature include Basavanna,Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi. Kumara Vyasa, who wrote the Karnata Bharata Katamanjari, has arguably been the most famous and most influential Kannada writer of the 15th century. The Bhakti movement gave rise to Dasa Sahitya around the 15th century which significantly contributed to the evolution of Carnatic music in its present form. This period witnessed great Haridasas like Purandara Dasa who has been aptly called the Pioneer of Carnatic music, Kanaka Dasa, Vyasathirtha andVijaya Dasa.
Modern Kannada in the 20th century has been influenced by many movements, notably Navodaya, Navya, Navyottara, Dalita and Bandaya. Contemporary Kannada literature has been highly successful in reaching people of all classes in society. Works of Kannada literature have received Eight Jnanpith awards, which is the highest number awarded for the literature in any Indian language. It has also received forty-seven Sahitya Academy awards. See also: Medieval Kannada literature and Kannada poetry Kashmiri literature[edit source | editbeta].
Main article: Kashmiri literature Malayalam literature[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Malayalam literature Even up to 500 years since the start of the Malayalam calendar which commenced in 825 AD, Malayalam literature remained in preliminary stage. During this time, Malayalam literature consisted mainly of various genres of songs. Ramacharitham written by Cheeramakavi is a collection of poems written at the end of preliminary stage in Malayalam literature’s evolution, and is the oldest Malayalam book available.
Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan (17th century) is considered as the Father of the Malayalam language, because of his influence on the acceptance of the Malayalam alphabet and his extremely popular poetic works like Adhyathmaramayanam. Several noted works were written during the 19th century, but it was in the 20th century the Malayalam literary movement came to prominence. Malayalam literature flourished under various genres and today it is a fully developed part of Indian literature. Manipuri literature[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Manipuri literature.
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