Physical abuse – is classed as the hitting, shaking, choking, biting or other physical attack on an individual. It can lead to bruising, cuts, scratches burns, fractures and internal injuries. As well as these more immediate injuries, there can also be longer term ones.
Someone who is being physically abused may show signs of it, but they may not be noticed by others if the victim is hiding the abuse. Signs and symptoms of physical abuse are cuts, brusies, burns grip marks, unusual pattern or location of injury, depression, fearfulness, withdrawn and anxiety.
Sexual abuse – Sexual abuse involves any sexual behaviour directed toward an adult without that adult’s knowledge and consent. Sexual abuse can happen to people of all ages, including the elderly. Sexual abuse is a way that a person tries to have control over someone and has nothing to do with consenting sex between adults. Sexual abuse is another form of physical and emotional control of one person over another person, and it has nothing to do with consensual sex between adults.
Signs and symptoms of sexual abuse are pain, itching or bruises around breasts or genital area, torn stained or bloody underclothing, sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal/anal bleeding, depression, withdrawal from regular activities, fear and anxiety.
Emotional/psychological abuse – Emotional abuse can be as painful and damaging as physical abuse because it diminishes an adult’s sense of identity, dignity and self-worth. Emotional abuse is when a person is verbally assaulted, insulted, yelled at, threatened or humiliated by someone close to them or by a caregiver. The abuser often confines a person or isolates them by preventing them from having visits from family and friends or by denying them the chance to attend doctor or other personal care appointments.
Signs and symptoms of emotional/psychological abuse are depression, fear, anxiety and behaviour changes when a carer enters or leaves a room.
Financial abuse – financial abuse involves the improper, illegal or unauthorized use of an adult’s resources for the benefit of another.
Signs and symptoms of financial abuse are unpaid bills, no money for food, clothing, or medication, unexplained withdrawal of money from someone’s bank account, family member or representative refuses to spend money on the adult’s behalf, possessions disappear, family member or another person forces an adult to sign over Power of Attorney against their own will.
Institutional abuse – Institutional abuse refers to mistreatment of someone living in a facility for older persons. This includes nursing homes, foster homes, group homes, or board and care facilities. For example the abuse refers to the ‘home’ and staff having set meal times, set places a resident can eat their meals, a certain time everyone must get up Rigid, routines, Inadequate staffing, Insufficient knowledge base within service etc.
Signs and symptoms of institutional abuse could be Inability to make choices or decisions, agitation if routine broken, disorientation, patterns of challenging behaviour. Self neglect – Adults are neglected when a caregiver does not provide the essential daily living needs of an adult dependent upon them, for things such as food, clothing, shelter, bathing, medication, health care, and doctor visits. Self-neglect happens when an adult can no longer take care of their own basic daily living needs.
Signs and symptoms of neglect and self-neglect are malnourishment, dehydration, confusion, inappropriate clothing, under or over medication, skin sores, poor hygiene, absence of required aids, canes and walkers.
Aiii / Aiv) If someone makes an allegation of abuse to you, the first and most important response is that you must believe what you are told. You must reassure the person that you believe what you have been told also reassure them that it is not their fault and that they are in no way to blame. Once youve reassured the person that you believe them, you should report the allegation immediately to a senior member of staff. Make sure you then make an accurate record of as much detailed information.
Av) If the abuse is physical, no attempt should be made to clean anything such as clothes or residence. The client should be dissuaded to wash. Other people should be kept out of the way. With financial abuse, evidence could be paperwork such as bank statements so these should not be thrown away. You should only remove anything that could be evidence if you suspect the abuser might dispose of it before the authorities can see it.
Avi) The national polices that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse are the safeguarding board, the social services. The child protection agencies like the NSPCC Childline. The H.uman rights act 1998 and the Equalityact of 2000.
Avii / Aviii) Different agencies and professionals play critical roles when involved in safe guarding individuals for example, Medical professionals such as GP, A&E staff, nurses, doctors – they can examine, diagnose & treat, they can record. The local authority Social Services would carry out an assessment of needs. Safeguarding Team, within Social Services dept – investigates and ensures safety, work with other agencies such as police. A Safeguarding & Protection Officer would lead the Adult Protection Alert. Police to investigate/prosecute, to work with other agencies, to provide support to victims, to raise awareness of crimes, crime prevention. Care Quality Commission to regulate & inspect care providers. Independent Safeguarding Authority.
Aix) When seeking advice, support and information to help care workers understand their role in safeguarding good sources would be social workers, advocaces, further training, management, relevant laws and policies, CQC guidelines, care plans including risk assessments.