Einstein note cards

Einstein’s childhood family (source B and C)
• Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14, 1879
• Six weeks after he was born he and his family moved to Munich
• He grew up with his middle class, Jewish family
• His dad (Hermann Einstein) was an engineer
• his mom (Pauline Einstein) took care of their house
• He had a sister name was Maja who was two years younger than him

Starting school (source A, B and D)
• Einstein went to elementary school at Luitpold Gymnasium located in Munich
• He didn’t feel comfortable or like the way he was being educated
• He had a speech difficulty which caused him to pause while he was speaking to think about what to say next
• He gained an interest in music and he took piano and violin lessons
• He enjoyed classical music

He also gained an interest in mathematics and science

Tutoring (source A)
• In 1889 a poor polish medical student named Max Talmud was invited over by the Einstein’s for Thursday meals
• Talmud became Albert’s tutor and he introduced him to philosophy and higher mathematics
• One day Talmud showed Albert a science book and inside there was a part where electricity traveled down a telegraph wire
• This book made Einstein curious as to what light would look like if it ran at the same speed
• This led him to write his first scientific paper when he was 16, “The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields.”

Miracle year (source A and B)
• This happened in 1905 alone.
• He did this while working in the patent office
• He wrote and published four of his most famous and influential papers

What he wrote during Miracle Year (source A and B)
• In the first one he applied the quantum theory to light in order to explain the photoelectric effect
• The second one contained Einstein’s experimental proof of the existence of atoms
• The Third paper is his most famous and it is called “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”
• In the third one he writes about his theory of relativity
• The fourth paper was on the relationship between mass and energy and the famous equation E =mc2 was included

Atomic bomb (Source A and D)
• In 1932 Einstein completely left Germany and moved to the United states in New jersey
• Some scientists knew of the Natsi plans to make an atomic bomb
• In 1939 Einstein and Leo Szilard (another scientist) wrote a letter to Roosevelt about the Nazi plans
• After the letter he was never asked to participate with the bomb again
He regretted signing the letter recommending the creation of the bomb after he saw all of the damage that was done

Einstein in love (source D and A)
• Einstein fell in in love with a student named Mileva Maric when he was at Zurich Polytechnic
• Einstein’s parents didn’t approve of him marrying her and he lacked the money to
• Einstein and Maric had an illegitimate daughter in 1902.
Their daughters name was Lieserl who either died or was given up for adoption

Einstein getting Married (source D and A)
• Einstein got a job and married Maric in 1903
• His job was a clerk at the Swiss patent office in Bern

They two other children; Hans Albert (born 1904) and Eduard (born 1910)

Miracle year part 2 (source A)
• At first his four papers where ignored, but then a man named Max Planck gave complements and experiments that proved his theory’s
• Max Planck was one of the most influential physicist of his generation and the founder of the quantum theory.
• Einstein rose in the academic world

Ending marriage (source A)
• At home his marriage grew worse because of Einstein’s constant travel and studying for work
• He and his wife fought all of the time
• He ended the marriage in 1919
He later had an affair with his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal who he later married

1924 (source E)
• Einstein worked on the new quantum theory.
• he looked for a way to join the theories of electromagnetism and gravity.
In 1929 he announced an unified field theory but he still wasn’t satisfied with just that, he needed experiments

University of Berlin (source D)
• Einstein continued to work as a clerk at the Swiss patent office in Bern until 1909, when he found a full-time academic post at the university of berlin
• In 1913 he arrived at the university
• He was made the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics
• In 1915 Einstein published his theory of relativity

Thoughts on War (source E)
• When the first WW broke out Einstein didn’t approve of how aggressive the war aims where
• He supported a foundation for a pacifist group
• Over the next few years Einstein signed petitions for peace while he was working
In 1933 he moved to New Jersey and he refused to live under the Nazi government

Theory of relativity (source D and B)
• Einstein considered this his best work
• He published his findings in 1915
• This theory found that gravity and motion can effect time and space
• In 1921 he awarded Nobel Prize in Physics
• The theory of relativity was the first major theory since Newtons (which was more 250 years before)
• He began touring the world and speaking in front of large crowds

Photoelectric effect (Source C)
• The photoelectric effect is the idea in which electrons are emitted from the surface of matter (usually metals) when light shines upon it
• Einstein proposed that light consists of small particles, or quanta, called photons, which carry energy that is proportional to the frequency of light.
• The electrons in the matter that absorb the energy of the photon get ejected
• Einstein published a paper called “On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light” in 1905
• Einstein’s theory could only be explained if light acts as a particle, not a wave

Moving to the United states (Source D)
• In December 1932 Einstein moved to the US
• Me moved a month before Adolf Hitler became chancellor
• many people where suffering in Germany due to the aftermath of war
He took a position at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in New Jersey

American (source E)
• In 1940 Einstein became an American citizen
• In 1952 he was asked to be the second president of the state of Israel
• He declined the offer

Right before death (Source A and F)
• Einstein retired from the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton in 1945
• he still worked to find an unidentified field theory
• He still contributed to the peace movement
He was offered to be the second president of Israel and he declined the offer

Einstein’s death (source A)
• On April 17th 1955 Einstein he suffered from an abdominal aortic aneurysm and experienced internal bleeding
• He was taken to the University Medical Center at Princeton but when he got there he refused to have surgery
• He believed that it was his time to go and he was ready to accept his fate
• He died on April 18th 1955
• “I want to go when I want,” he stated at the time. “It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly.” – Einstein quote before dyeing

What Einstein is known for (source C and D)
• He is one of the most influential scientist in the 20th century
• Einstein’s work on the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, the special theory of relativity and equivalence of matter and energy (E=mc2) has changes physics for the better
• He won a Nobel prize for his work on the photoelectric effect