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Chemistry: EM, Einstein, Photons, Bohr, OM Model, Electron Configuration

Hydrogen atom absorbing light
Atom absorbs photons and energy pushes the electron into a higher orbit

Continuous Spectrum
The visible spectrum based on its appearance compared to atomic emission spectrum

Atomic emission spectrum
Used to identify the elements

Wave-Particle Duality
Light behaves like a particle and a wave

Photon
A particle of electromagnetic radiation

7
Orbitals in f-sublevel

5
Orbitals in d-sublevel

3
Orbitals in p-sublevel

1
Orbitals in s-sublevel

+1/2 and -1/2
Spin quantum numbers

Crest
Top of a wave

Trough
Bottom of a wave

Wavelength
Distance in between adjacent waves

Amplitude
Height of a wave from the line drawn through the middle to the top of the crest

Frequency
The number of waves that pass a given point per second

One Hz
SI unit of frequency, one wave per second

High frequency wave
Small wave length, high energy

Low frequency wave
Large wave length, low energy

Speed of light
3.00 x 10^8

Wave Particle Duality
Light behaves like a particle and a wave

Energy of a photon
E (energy)=h (Plank’s Constant, 6.626 x 10^-34) v (frequency)

Bohr Model
Atom absorbs photons of light because the energy of the light pushes the electron to a higher orbit

Excited state
A state of higher energy of an electron after it has absorbed energy

Ground state
The state of lowest energy of an electron

Atomic emission spectrum
The pattern of individual frequencies of light emitted by atoms of an element

Quantum mechanical model
Explains how atoms form chemical bonds and can predict chemical properties

Main energy level
Also called a shell, the region where electrons are found around the nucleus

Principal quantum number
A number 1-7 which designates how far the main energy level is from the nucleus and the increasing energy of each level

Sublevel
Region of space located within each main energy level

Orbital
Region of space within each sublevel which can hold 1-2 electrons

S-sublevel
Spherical shape

P-sublevel
3 lobes perpendicular to each other

D-sublevel
5 orbitals

F-sublevel
7 orbitals

Electron Configuration
Arrangement of electrons in an atom

Aufbau Principal
Electrons that occupy the lowest energy levels go first

Hund’s Rule
Electrons go into each orbital alone before they form pairs

Pauli Exclusion Principal
Electrons in an orbital must have opposite spins

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