Chemistry Chapter One

Define science
Gaining knowledge based on observation

Major categories of science
Biological science and physical science

Define biological science
Study of things that are/were alive

Define physical science
Study of matter

Examples of biological science
Botany- plants
Zoology- animals
Mycology- fungi
Microbiology- microorganisms

Examples of physical science
Chemistry-matter and its properties/reactions
Physics- relationship between matter and energy

Nature does not have categories of science, but…
Categories help us organize the information

There are many combinations or cross overs of…
These categories of science (example: biochemistry)

Define chemistry
Study of composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes

Types of chemistry
Organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, and theoretical chemistry

Define organic chemistry
Study of most carbon containing compounds

Define inorganic chemistry
Study of non-organic substances

Define physical chemistry
Study of properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy

Define analytical chemistry
Identification of the components and composition of materials

Define biochemistry
Study of substances and processes occurring in living things

Define theoretical chemistry
Use of mathematics and computers to understand principles behind chemical behavior

Types of chemical research
Basic research, applied research, technological development

Define basic research
Research for the sake of increasing knowledge

Define applied research
Research to solve a problem

Define technological development
Research that involves production and use of products that improve quality of life

Define physical properties
Changes substance

Physical properties lead to…
Intensive and extensive properties

Define intensive properties
Property that does not depend on the amount of substance (example: color, texture, density)

Define extensive properties
Property that depends on the amount of the substance (example: mass, volume, length)

Define chemical properties
Does not change the substance

Define physical changes
Characteristics that can be observed without change the identity of the substance (example: color of nails is silver)

Define chemical changes
Cannot be observed without changing the identity of the substance (example: rust, decomposable, flammable)

Phase map in order from lowest kinetic energy to highest
Degenerate matter, Bose-Einstein condensate, solid, liquid, gas, plasma, Quark-Gluon plasma

Define Degenerate matter
Highly compressed matter existing in cores of massive stars

Define Bose-Einstein condensate
Gasous superfluid formed by atoms and cooled to absolute zero, strongest intermolecular energy, close and strong molecules

Define solid
Definite shape and volume, formula units closely packed

Define liquid
Definite volume, shape of container, formula units close and in random arrangement

Define gas
Takes volume and shape of container, formula units are far apart

Define plasma
Same as gas but no ionized

Define Quark-Gluon plasma
Building blocks of matter existing in soup

Gas formula

Liquid formula

Solid formula

Define intermolecular forces
Forces between molecules, responsible for phases

Define endothermic
Requires energy

Define exothermic
Releases energy

Plasma, to gas, to liquid, to solid… and gas to solid
Deionization, condensation, freezing… and deposition

Plasma, to gas, to liquid, to solid… and gas to solid are referred to as what?

Solid, to liquid, to gas, to plasma… and solid to gas
Melting, evaporation, ionization… and sublimation

What is the purpose of a glossary and appendix?
Glossary- Defines words in back of textbook
Appendix- Sections append in back of textbook

When writing formulas…
-Symbol is capitalized
-If there are two letters, the second letter is lowercase

Special Elements
Diatomic- H2, O2, N2, Group 17/7A/VII, F2, Cl2, I2, Br2, At2
Others- S8 (sulfur), P4 (phosphorus), O3 (ozone), Se8 (selenium)
Rest are monotomic- Look up symbol


Remember to put what on graphs?
Title, legend, type of measurements, units

Parts of flame…
Outer cone- limited gas, lots of air
Inner cone- mix of gas and air
Base cone- limited air, lots of gas

Hottest part of flame
Tip of inner cone

Lab attire
Long hair pulled back, goggles, closed shoes, long pants, long sleeved shirt, apron

Define matter
Has mass and occupies space (make pure substance and mixtures)

Define mixture
Two or more kinds of formula units
-heterogenous or homogenous
-homogenous: acid, base, salt, alloy

Define heterogenous
Not the same throughout

Define homogenous
The same throughout

Define pure substance
One kind of formula unit, during its phase change temperature stays the same until the change is complete
-element or compound
-element: metals, metalloid, non-metals
-compound: covalent and ionic bonds

Define element
One type of atom

Define compound
2 or more kinds of atom

Define covalent bonds
Sharing electrons

Define ionic bonds
Transfers electrons

Kinds of solutions
Gas, liquid, solid

Define alloy, give examples
Metal made by combining two or more metallic elements (example: brass, bronze, steel, iron)

Describe metals
Malleable, ductile, good conductor of heat and electricity, shiny, high melting point

Describe nonmetals
Nonmalleable (brittle), not ductile, poor conductor of heat and electricity, dull

Describe metalloid
An element whose properties are intermediate between solid nonmetals (both metal and nonmetal)

Using a dropper…
Hold dropper vertically to get same size drops, squeeze bulb with uniform pressure, never stick dropper into water

Using a regent bottle
Turn hand over, grasp stopper between two finger, handle bottle with same hand, never put stopper on counter

Heating a test tube in a burner flame
Tube should be no more than 1/3 full, hold at angle, move back and forth (heating from side to side)

Filtering a precipitate from a liquid
Put in clean funnel, moisten with distilled water to hold in place, decant liquid from top of solid

Periods on periodic table
Vertical columns

Groups on periodic table
Horizontal rows

Define blunder
Mistake that happens to only on or a few groups in a lab

Define source of error
Part of the experiment and happens to all groups

Mistakes in the lab are called…
Blunders and sources of error

Define quarks
Fractional charged subatomic particles that make up larger subatomic particles

Name the six types of quarks
Up, down, strange, charm, top, and bottom

Using a bunsen burner
Constructed with an inlet with an adjustment for amount of air, and amount of gas. Proper mixture yields faint blue flame for maximum heat and minimum soot

What is meant by the word chemical?
Substance with definite composition

Branches of chemistry
Physical chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry

What is mass, what is matter?
Mass-Measure of the amount of matter
Matter- Anything that has mass and takes up space

How does a pure compound differ from a mixture?
Compound is consistent and has properties of itself. Mixtures retain properties of what makes it up

Define property
Characteristic that defines an entire group of substances

How are properties useful in classifying materials?
Properties can be used to distinguish substances and separate them

Difference between extensive and intensive property
Extensive depends on matter that is present and intensive does not

Distinguish physical and chemical change
PC- change in substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
CC- change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances

What is meant by change in state?
Change in the object. Whether solid, liquid, or gas. Changing form

Top versus bottom on the KE scale…
Quark-Gluon Plasma- Top
Degenerate matter- Bottom

Graduated cylinder
Graduated cylinder

Florence flask
Florence flask

Reagent bottle
Reagent bottle

Erlenmeyer flask
Erlenmeyer flask

Wash bottle
Wash bottle

Test tube rack with test tubes
Test tube rack with test tubes


Watch glass
Watch glass


Pneumatic trough
Pneumatic trough

Flame spreader
Flame spreader


Wire gauze
Wire gauze

Crucible with cover
Crucible with cover

Evaporating dish
Evaporating dish

Bunsen burner
Bunsen burner

Screw clamp
Screw clamp

Pinch clamp
Pinch clamp

Utility clamp
Utility clamp

Right angle clamp
But with dime at both ends
Right angle clamp

Test tube clamp
Test tube clamp


Dropper bottle
Dropper bottle



Buret brush
Buret brush


Volumetic flask
Volumetic flask

Test tubes
Test tubes

Test tube brush
Test tube brush

Test tube clamp with test tube
Test tube clamp with test tube


Where are metals and nonmetals on a periodic table?
Metals- Left side
Nonmetals- Right side

Fun fact regarding elements!?
Cannot be separated into simpler means

What is the name of a new substance and different formula?
Chemical change

What is the name of the same substance and different formula?
Physical change

Define kinetic energy
Energy of motion

If it’s a pure substance, how do you identify the melting or freezing point?
The total straight section

If it’s a mixture, how do you identify the melting or freezing range?
Change in slope

How do melting and freezing points of a pure substance compare?
Should be equal to each other

Kinds of solutions
Acid, bases, neutral, alloy