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Chapter One Religions 110B

Literally, the word religion means
Connect again.

A common element often found in religions is
feelings of wonder

the prophetic orientation in religion emphasizes
beliefs and moral codes

The early anthropologist who saw religions rooted in the belief in spirits and the worship of them was
James Frazer

Sigmund Freud, when analyzing the origin of religion, emphasized
the human need for psychological security

The desciple of Freud who ultimately rebelled against him
Carl Jung

Wilhelm Schmidt, an Austrian philologist, argued that humans originally believed in
one god.

Belief in many gods
poloytheism

Belief in one god
monotheism

A mystical orientation is characterized by
the seeking of a union with something greater than oneself

A sacramental orientation is characterized by
the belief that certain rituals and ceremonies help one achieve salvation

A universal religious symbol that is circular, or blends a circle and a square, is called a
mandala

The prophetic orientation is particularly strong in
Protestant Christianity

Pantheism is the belief that
all reality is divine

One religion that particularly values and makes use of silence is
Zen Buddhism

One name of an early female deity
Astarte

In religious studies, the word “myth” means
A story that is psychologically meaningful and may be either historically true or not

Literally, “philosophy” in Greek means
love of wisdom

A Dutch Reformed Church clergyman who left his religious calling for painting
Vincent Van Gogh

Among the many reasons for religions, they exist to help people
deal with the certainty of death

Literally, psychology means
study of the soul

What psychologist saw religion as a way for people to find their fulfillment as unique individuals, a process he called “individuation”?
Carl Jung

The approach that especially makes use of reason to find answers to religious questions is
philosophy

The conception of time that emphasizes a creation and a cosmic purpose is usually
Linear

That area of investigation that looks for and interprets religious evidence in ancient sites, buildings, and objects is
Archeology

Literally, “theology” means
study of the divine

The French thinker who recognized extraordinary structural similarities in stories told by tribal peoples of the Americas was
Claud Levi-Strauss

The French thinker who sought to go behind and beyond ordinary interpretations, to in essence “deconstruct” texts and other phenomena, was
Derrida

The analytical approach that carefully investigates individual elements in cultural phenomena, rejecting the quest for universal structures that might under-gird language or religions is
Post-structuralism

The analytical approach to language, religions, and mythology that searches for universal underlying frameworks is
structuralism

the analytical approach that studies written texts of religion and even non-written material as reflections of the cultural values and assumptions that produced them is
literary theory

The German theologian who held that religions originate in human response to the mysterious side of reality was
Rudolf Otto

The American thinker who argued that religion brought a new vitality to people’s lives was
William James

The Scottish anthropologist who was the author of the multivolume study of mythology called The Golden Bough was
James Frazer

The French thinker who explored types of power in social and religious institutions and systems of thought that oppressed minority and other marginalized groups was
Foucault.

The anthropologist who lived in the Sudan among the Nuer and Azande peoples was
Evans Pritchard

The sociologist who emphasized that individual religions arise from and express the values of their societies was
Durkheim

Female imagery in religions may be seen in
Spirals and eggs

Anthropology typically studies religions as
Cultural creations with multiple aspects

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