Chapter 28 The Rise of Totalitarianism Section 1

Jazz Age
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
Jazz Age

Louis Armstrong
United States jazz trumpeter and bandleader (1900-1971)
Louis Armstrong

Duke Ellington
United States jazz composer and piano player and bandleader (1899-1974)

flapper
Women in the 1920’s who bobbed their hair, wore short skirts, and defied the morals and restrictions of the earlier generations – F. Scott Fitzgerald’s wife, Zelda, was one
flapper

Miriam Ferguson
first female Governor of Texas in 1925
Miriam Ferguson

Lady Nancy Astor
First woman to serve in the British Parliament
Lady Nancy Astor

How did new technologies in the 1920s contribute to postwar changes?
They helped form a mass culture. Labor-saving devices became common in middle-class homes, enabling more women to work outside the home
How did new technologies in the 1920s contribute to postwar changes?

mass media
forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people

Prohibition
A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
Prohibition

18th Amendment
The Prohibition Amendment ratified in 1919. Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Repealed by 21st amendment in 1933

Speakeasies
An illegal bar where drinks were sold, during the time of prohibition. It was called a Speakeasy because people literally had to speak easy so they were not caught drinking alcohol by the police.
Speakeasies

What was the reaction to these new ideas and life styles in the 1920s?
Some people clung to traditional beliefs, such as Christian fundamentalism

Christian fundamentalist movement
literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion – movement swept the rural areas of the US in the 1920s
Christian fundamentalist movement

John Thomas Scopes
a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school – Scopes “Monkey” Trial – found guilty
John Thomas Scopes

Erich Remarque
German WWI veteran and author of “All Quiet on the Western Front” written in 1929.
Erich Remarque

T.S. Eliot
British WWI poet, playwright, and literary critic – wrote “The Waste Land”
T.S. Eliot

Ernest Hemingway
“The Sun Also Rises” – shows the rootless wanderings of young people who lack deep convictions – part of the Lost Generation

F. Scott Fitzgerald
(1896-1940) American writer famous for his novels and stories, such as The Great Gatsby, capturing the mood of the 1920s. He gave the decade the nickname the “Jazz Age.”

Lost Generation
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe – Gertrude Stein’s label
Lost Generation

Virginia Woolf
author of “Mrs. Dalloway” – used stream of consciousness to explore the thoughts of people going through

James Joyce
influential Irish writer noted for his many innovations (such as stream of consciousness writing) (1882-1941) – “Finnegans Wake”

What did writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf explore with their use of stream of consciousness?
people’s hidden thoughts

Harlem Renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished – James Weldon Johnson, Jean Toomer, and Zora Neale Hurston explored the African American experience in their novels and essays. The poets Claude McKay and Langston Hughes experimented with new styles, while Countee Cullen adapted traditional poetic forms to new content

What did the writing of the Harlem Renaissance explore?
aspects of the African American experience
What did the writing of the Harlem Renaissance explore?

Marie Curie
1867-1934. Polish physicist and chemist. Pioneer in the field of radioactivity, and is the first and only person awarded the Nobel Prize in two different sciences. She died form radiation poisoning.
Marie Curie

Albert Einstein
1879-1955. German born theoretical physicist. Best known for his theory of relativity and his theory of energy equivalence. Received Nobel Prize in 1921 for physics.

Why did Curie’s and Einstein’s theories seem unsettling to the general public?
They seemed to reinforce the sense of old certainties falling apart and a universe that seemed beyond human understanding

Enrico Fermi
Italian physicist – Father of nuclear energy, first to produce nuclear chain reaction – discovered atomic fission, or the splitting of the nuclei of atoms in two
Enrico Fermi

Robert Oppenheimer
United States physicist who directed the project at Los Alamos that developed the first atomic bomb (1904-1967)

Edward Teller
United States physicist (born in Hungary) who worked on the first atom bombs and the first hydrogen bomb (born in 1908)
Edward Teller

Alexander Fleming
Scottish bacteriologist who discovered penicillin (1881-1955) and developed antibiotics
Alexander Fleming

How did Fleming’s discovery of penicillin affect people’s lives?
It led to the development of antibiotics, which revolutionized the medical treatment of infections.

Sigmund Freud
A Austrian psychologist who developed psychoanalysis. Believed strongly that unconscious drives and desires guided people’s actions.

psychoanalysis
A method of investigating human Psychological development and treating emotional disorders.
psychoanalysis

How did Freud’s work have an impact beyond medicine?
It led artists to explore the subconscious mind.

fauves
“Wild Beasts” with color – painters
fauves

Henri Matisse
utilized bold, wild strokes of color and odd distortions to produce works of strong emotion
Henri Matisse

Cubists
painters who challenged traditional realism by breaking up three-dimensional figures into different “cubes” – complex patterns of angles and planes, as if they were composed of fragmented parts
Cubists

Pablo Picasso
a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes

Georges Braque
was a French painter and sculptor who, with Pablo Picasso, developed cubism and became one of the major figures of twentieth-century art.
Georges Braque

abstract art
A style of art that does not show a realistic subject, usually transforming the subject into lines, colors or shapes.
abstract art

Vasily Kandinsky
Russian painter and founder of Abstract Expressionism, ‘Painting With White Border’
Vasily Kandinsky

Paul Klee
1879-1940; Swiss artist. Famous for simple geometric shapes in simple arrangements, & expression and surrealism, such as Head of a Man & Sindbad the Sailor.
Paul Klee

dada
a nihilistic art movement (especially in painting) that flourished in Europe early in the 20th century

Jean Arp
dada sculptor of smooth rounded shapes
Jean Arp

Max Ernst
painter (born in Germany, resident of France and the United States) who was a cofounder of Dadaism
Max Ernst

surrealism
A movement in art emphasizing the expression of the imagination as realized in dreams and presented without conscious control.
surrealism

Salvador Dali
Surrealist artist of “Clock Explosion”, “Persistence of Memory”, “The Elephants”, and “The Meditative Rose

Bauhaus school
Under Gropius, German school of architecture that brought together modern architecture – glass, steel, and concrete – little ornamentation
Bauhaus school

Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America’s greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.