Chapter 13 MyPsychLab

Based on research from a variety of sources, it seems that approximately _____ of variations in personality traits are caused by environmental influences.
one-half

____ studies how much of an individual’s personality is inherited
behavioral genetics

Hofstede found that the United States is low in
power distance

studies have shown the the Big Five personality factors have ___ % heritability across several cultures
50 percent

John’s boss yells at him. As John walks meekly out of the boss’s office, Dana walks past him and says, “Hello!” John yells at Dana and proceeds to berate her for the job she did on the last contract. Freud would say John is using _____ as a way of dealing with his stress.
displacement

According to Freud, unresolved conflicts can cause _____ in a certain stage of development.
fixation

Early psychoanalysts who broke away from a strict interpretation of psychoanalytic theory were called
neo-Freudians

Sarah is shy, so she works hard to look nice all the time in hopes that people will like her. This is
compensation

according to Freud, the desired outcome of the phallic stage of psychosexual development is
identification with the same-sex parent

The office of one of your professors is extremely neat and tidy. All the books are carefully arranged on the shelves, and there are no papers lying about. Freud might suggest that this person has a(n)
anal retentive personality

Maslow thought that Einstein and Gandhi were
self-actualized

in Roger’s vier, problems arise when
a person’s view of self is distorted or the ideal self is impossible to attain.

Dr. Ortiz has a client, Jamal, who is interested in finding out what type of career might be best suited for him. Which one of the following assessments might Dr. Ortiz choose to administer to Jamal based on his current interest?
Myers-Briggs Typer Indicator

Devon is taking a personality test that includes a long list of questions. For each question, Devon must choose from a limited set of answers. Devon is taking a

Marjorie took a personality test in April. She took the same test in June and got a very similar score. This personality test is
reliable

a trait theorist would most likely use which of the following personality assessments?
California Psychological Inventory

when psychological professionals conduct personality assessments, they
often look at the client’s behavior from all four perspectives to find the pieces of each that work for the client.

if a test measures what it is supposed to measure, that test has
validity

According to Cattell’s 16PF self-report inventory, airline pilots, when compared to writers, tend to be more
conscientious

trait theories differ from other theories of personality development in that they
are less concerned with how personality develops than they are with describing personalities and the actions that result from them.

In examining the five-factor model (or the Big Five), Costa and McCrae believed that these traits are not _____. In other words, knowing someone’s score on one trait would not give any information about scores on the four other traits.
interdependent

One way in which the social cognitive view differs from psychoanalytic theory is that it
can be and has been tested under scientific conditions

Sophie has a chance to interview for a promotion at work. She is sure she will do poorly, so she decides against it. Bandura would say that Sophie has
low self-efficacy

Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory is based on
extensive research, such as the Bobo doll study

“I believe that humans and animals are conditioned to react to the world around them, thus developing their personalities through learned, or habitual, behaviors.” Which type of theorist is most likely to make this statement?

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