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Effects of deprivation
Socially & verbally behind

Effects of Enrichment
– $ for toys (toys=good for kids)
– baby einstein genius toys hunched at progressing education (altho =BS)
-> normal vs deprived; no change in last 20 yrs; basically kids have always been playing. Society enriches you

Motor Development
Fine Motor
Gross Motor

Fine Motor
Small movements
reaching grasping
manual dexterity

Gross Motor
Large movements
0-1 years
creeping, rolling over, crawling, standing, walking
1-2 years
walking, running, climbing

6 Substages
1. Focusing Reflex Schemas
2. Primary Circular Reactions
3. Secondary Circular Reactions
4. Emergence of Intentionality
5. Tertiary Circular Reactions
6. Representation

Focusing Reflex Schemas
Coordinates reflexes

Primary Circular Reactions
Infants repeating actions related to their own bodies that had initially happened by chance

Secondary Circular Reactions
Happy accidents repeated
objects beyond baby bottle/rattle

Emergence of Intentionality
goal-directed actions
small procedures, may have 1 or 2 steps
ex) move pillow in order to get a turn off light

Tertiary Circular Reactions
experimenting, deliberately varying actions
ex) dropping keys from baby table
testing the world, problem solving

– internal mental symbols (ability to hold ideas in head)
– How guide actions, symbol play “feeding stuffed bear”
– Deferred imitation

Symbolic play
How guide actions, symbol play “feeding stuffed bear”
-play in which one object stands for, or represents, another
ex: a child combs a baby doll’s hair with a twig or gives it a drink from a small plastic block.

4 phases of attention
1. Stimulus-Detection Reflex
2. Stimulus Orienting
3. Sustained Attention
4. Attention Termination

Violation-of-expectations method & why used
-a test of mental representation in which the child is habituated to an event and then presented with possible and impossible variants of the event.
-It is used as a trick to figure out what infants do and do not understand mentally about the their experiences and the physical world.

Basic Emotions
Sadness Joy Fear Anger

Pain Suprise Interest Disgust

Emotion regulation
– acting to control/mandate emotions
– the ability to control emotions and being aware

Primary intersubjectivity – & infant & caregivers’ ways of maintaining Secondary intersubjectivity
I. Babies turn into caregivers, from birth, babies:
Follow human faces and voices
like touch and interaction
II. Primary Intersubjectivity (between-person)

Mirror neurons
-brain cells that fire when an individual sees or hears another perform an action, just as they would fire if the observing individual were performing the same action.
Ex: a baby mimics expressions from mother -these expressions are triggered by mirror neurons

– First 6 months, needs must be met by someone
– A Secure Base
– Safety & Exploration

Internal working model
– a mental model that children construct as a result of their experiences with their caregivers and that they use to guide their interactions with their caregivers and others
– Test how well it works across time and place

3 Kinds of Attachment
1. Securely Attached
2. Insecure-Resistant
3. Insecure-Avoidant

Securely Attached
1. Where children play comfortably and react positively to a stranger as long as their mother is present

2. They become upset when their mother leaves and are unlikely to be consoled by a stranger, but they calm down as soon as their mother reappears

1. where infants stay close to their mother and appear anxious even when their mother is near

2. They become upset when their mother leaves but are not comforted by her return. They simultaneously seek renewed contact with their mother and resist their mothers efforts to comfort them

1. Where their mother is sitting, may or may not cry when their mother leaves, are as likely to be comforted by strangers as by their mother.

2. Are indifferent when their mother returns to the roo

Social Referencing
reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation

Sense of self
1. Self recognition
2. Self as Agent
3. Self conscious emotions

Self Recognition
identification of the self as a physically unique being

Self as Agent
baby refers to self as a do-er
has his/her own sense of capabilities
ex) ‘Maggie can do it’/’I can’

Self-Conscious Emotions
Senses of completion
ex) not just happy to be making a sandcastle, happy/proud that SHE built it

Trust and Autonomy
people who will take care of me (or not)
0-1 yr

Autonomy VS Shame & Doubt
ability to self direct, can you exercise your own will and self control (or not)

Power of Language
Gives us:
– sharing feelings [baby cries/all cries]
– direct action
– very immediate

*Let us think, talk about stuff that’s not happening

Four Parts of Language acquisition
1. Sound -> Phonology
2. Meaning -> Semantics
3. Grammer -> Grammer
4. Use -> Pragmatics

ph/o/n/e/me or phoneme
Basic unit of sound

Basic unit of meaning morph eme

Making the Sounds
1. cooing, gurgling 1 mo
2. Babbling 6 mo
3. Jargoning 8 mo

MEANING semantics
Working out what the sounds refer to
first words 12 mo
other people have to figure out what the baby means

GRAMMAR grammar
Rules for combining words into sentences
Universally acquired
2 Word phrases are the start
‘daddy chase’! VS ‘chase daddy’ ‘help me’! VS ‘me help!

USE pragmatics
Right words at the right time
– Doing stuff through words [ex. ‘up’ ‘carry’]
Narratives chronology
– Interpreting the use of words
indirect speech even 2 yrs old can ex. ‘is that door open?’
1. Multiple Meanings ‘no eat’
2. Sarcasm, irony don’t use with little kids
3. Social Conventions
4. Politeness

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