Anthropology 201 Exam 3

the economy
production -> circulation/distribution -> consumption

total social act
the exchange of goods and services which involve an emotional aspect

moral economy
an exchange of goods and services that involves an emotional, moral, and social aspect

three forms of distribution
market principle, redistribution, reciprocity

market principle
occurs when the exchange rate and organizations are governed by a monetary standard; value of goods exchanged is determined by the laws of supply and demand; exists in industrial societies

redistribution
predominant form of exchange in chiefdom’s and nonindustrial states; involves goods, services or their equivalent that move from a local level to a central location where they are reorganized and the proportion is sent back to the local level; i.e. the US tax system

reciprocity
exchange between social equals; the three principles may coexist, and most economies are not characterized by one, single mode of exchange

the three forms of reciprocity
generalized reciprocity, balanced reciprocity, and negative reciprocity

generalized reciprocity
associated with foraging societies; most common among closely related exchange partners and involves no specific expectation of return; i.e. xmas in the Kalahari

balanced reciprocity
involves more distantly related exchange partners, like cousins, and entails giving with the expectation of a equivalent, but not necessarily with immediate return; without the return of a gift may trouble the relationship

negative reciprocity
associated with market economies hat involves distant trading partners and is characterized by each partner attempting to maximize profit, with the expectation of immediate exchange; i.e. the stock market

potlatching
practiced among NW coast native Americans; traditionally they gave away their resources, manufactured wealth, and increased prestige; foragers but lives in sedentary villagers, and had chiefs, had access to wide range environment rich in land and sea; traded in first-hand contact with Europeans, which resulted in gradual depopulation from diseases and the influx of new trade goods; the practice was restricted to chiefs but soon became accessible to everyone became destructive activity

economic anthropology
different forms of distribution and exchange; profit as motive of economic activity; the embeddedness

industrial economy
alienation occurs when a worker is separated from the product of their work; shelter is separated from work when the product is sold with the profit going to an employer, while the worker is payed a wage; consequences that the worker has is less personal investments in the product

classical economic theory
assumes that individual and university act refined by economizing to maximize profits

alternative ends include 5 broad categories
subsistence, replacement, social, ceremonial, and paying rent

subsistence
work done to replace the calories lost through life activities

replacement
fund is to maintain the technological necessity for life

social
work is expanded or done to establish and maintain social roles

ceremonial
work is done to fulfill ritual obligations; i.e. donating to church, driving to temple, gas you spend, weddings

paying rent
work is made to satisfy the obligations owed or inflicted by political or economic experiences

distribution and exchange
is the market principle that occurs when the exchange rate and organizations are governed by monetary standard

Anthropological approach to the political
is global and comparative; interested in political as part of the existing culture; includes non-states, whereas politics is interested in modern states

Non-states
forms of political organizations that do not share features with modern states

Power
is the ability to exercise one’s will over others; connected to authority

Authority
the socially approved use of power; power that is socially sanctioned

The relationship between political organizations and society
the state can be distinguished from society, however the distinction is not present in all societies; political order embedded in overall social order

4 types of political organizations
foraging band, tribe, chiefdom, state

foraging band
relatively egalitarian but characterized by prestige for culturally vauled acts or qualities; I.e. courage, generosity; do not have any formal law, legal mechanisms enforce certain rules, without a formal system of law; Band- a type of organization that is loose, fluid, and changing; consist of fluid groups of people that change annually; Kinship network : extended families, and the network connection that exists between them; created and maintained through marriage, reproduction, trade, and visitation

tribes
horticultural and pastural societies are organized by village life and descent membership; organized in clusters of groups occupies a village; lack social class distinctions and formal government; relatively egalitarian but have a gendered structure; patriarchal societies are organized according to chiefs, eldermen, and big men; lack power but have authority, they lead by pursuasion and example; characterized by status, like age, gender, personal traits and abilities

chiefdoms
considered transitional stage to state; pernament political regulation of territory they administer; the pernament regulation is always there, just filled by a new person; political organizations ensure the endurance of the political orgnization over many generations; chiefs play an important role in the distribution, production, consumption, and regulation of goods; stratification (the formation of marked, distinct social classes; differentiation of economic status- wealth creates different classes; chiefy redistribution is the collection of goods that are redistributed to the entire community

states
features large and populous specialized units that carry out specific tasks;

four features of states
population control, judiciary, law enforcement, fiscal systems

population control
Administrative divisions like provinces, districts, etc that are run by or managed by particular state officials; foster mobility and resettlement- encourage move to somewhere else

judiciary
issued by state to set laws, explicit, written laws; poor prosecuted more severely than rich; governs internal state of family- domestic court

law enforcement
police force and military; claim that the law reduces violence- justice is not blind to social stratification and law produces violence; laws do not function without enforcement, coercion, and violence to sustain existing state hierarchy

fiscal systems
taxation; performed no subsistence activity by state officials- they don’t do anything; serves to support the societies rulers and the ruling structures; works by collecting proportion from citizens, then redistributes to institutions, like the military and the edu systems

Social control
domination, hegemony, resistance; can happen at levels that are not explicitly political; notions to understand power

Hegemony
refers to the processess and reality whereby the dominant ideology of elites is internalized as natural by those of comparably less power and status; explains why power often has to protect civilians; I.e. NATO has to protect civilizens

Weapons of the weak – resistence
foot dragging, Xmas in the kalahari- shaming those who dominate