anth101

culture
“Culture is a system of knowledge, beliefs, patterns of behavior, artifacts, and institutions that are created, learned, and shared by a group of people

angency
free will, out cultures tell us how we should behave but we still have a choice

elements of culture
1. highly symbolic
2. all emcompassing
3. norms
4. values
5. symbols

highly symbolic
the abstract and material intermingle to reinforce group unity

how is culture encompasing
provides the guidelines for social interactions and “appropriate worldviews. Creates unique and culturally specific truths

enculturation
this is learning, teaching creating culture is an ongoing negotiated and contested set of processes.

complex meaning
house- moe than material thing

norms
Often developed from practical strategies for group to survive and thrive
ex: marriage

values
core fundamental beliefs about right and wrong/good and bad

american values example
The United States heavily influenced by Puritan colonists that helped to found many of the continent’s earliest settlements.

Thus values such as hard work and denial of pleasures (general abstinence) are often seen as worthy values.

symbols
represents and expresses cultural norms and values. Evokes emotion.
ex: language, the american flag

language as a symbol
Distills complex ideologies and interrelated meanings into single symbols transforming words and objects into the cultural, emotional equivalent.

mental maps
Mental Maps represent a person’s attempt to distill the complex world around them into culturally based understandable categories and perspectives.

enculturation example
parents decorating their child’s room based on gender

how do we learn culture
subtly through interactions

how do we create mental maps
Comparing and contrasting what they observe/experience against perceived practices and ideologies of realty and truth

ex: define people as what they do, what they wear, how they act

norm in US
graduate high school and move onto college

globalization
the worldwide intensification of interactions and increased movement of money, people, goods, and ideas within and across national borders.

sterotypes
we all live within the sterotypes in our society

ex:public bus- how you decide where to sit

key dynamics of globalization of culture (8)
Time-Space Compression
Flexible Accumulation
Increasing Migration
Uneven Development
Rapid Change
Adapting to the Natural World
Shaping the Natural World
Humans and Climate Change

Testable truth versus contextual truth. (look in book)
-a kiss is never just a kiss
-dont kiss your mother the way you kiss your boyfriend
-richard geer caused conflict by kissing indian woman in public

globalization in terms of anthropology
is not new, just a on-going human process, shifting in scale of effect on environment and interpersonal relations. People move somewhere, leave, expand

what have made globalization easier
technology- time space compression-generations are more connected

what has come with new technology and globalization
we want info now and quickly

increasing mirgration
cheaper so we see more movement globally and internally

uneven development
countries dont grow at same level

nature v nurture
how we funtion as a sepcies, is to nurture (to teach and to learn) therefore they work in unison

based on biological necessities but how we use those is nurture

problem with culture
Often members of a culture cannot see the creative, subjective and historically particular processes of their own culture – confusing localized worldviews that developed over millennia for absolute truth.

ethnocentrisms
i think my culture is best, so when i see other cultures acting diffeernt they are “wrong”

example of ethnocentrisms
marriage- monogomy is the only choice we do not see polygamy as right

essentialism
tendency to stereotype and prejudge- everyone from a certain culture, religion, is the same … missing the uniqueness in people

having power means that
1. You don’t have to see or believe in subjective truth
2. You can force your Mental Map onto others.

anthropology developed during an intense period of globalism in which century
nineteenth century 1801-1900

anthropologists in 19th cenury
have presence but dont have structure yet

what makes us question our culture
when we are exposed to cultures different then ours, problem in america because are cultures of cultures

homogenization or no?
mcdonalds, yes, some things all the same but tweaks to different menus in different areas.

smaller populations making homogenenzation special for themselves

power and opinion
you can assess someone, but you may not have the power to make others feel that way

Armchair Anthropology in Stratified Colonial Empires in 19th century
did not do field work adn were getting data from sources such as missonaires or soliders and it was taken very serioiusly because they were igh up in their field at the time

after world war 2
realization of longitudinal studies

Unilineal cultural evolution
darwin 19th century- evolution, people trying to use in their fields but misunderstood it

evolution of species
random of luck who survives, not all species go through the same stages

where do they et idea of stages of civilization
american colonials saw themselves at as the highest point so everyone below them were still in growing stages

power
the ability or potential to bring about change through action or influence

do all societies have means to distribute power?
yes

how are modern societies stratified
Modern societies are predominately internally stratified and all are stratified within the global systems.

cultural structures
The structures are cultural institutions organized around the norms of the powerful.

material power
refers to the more traditional signs of power: Political, economic, or material power.

hegemony
refers to a power to create consent and agreement within a population aka
Influence, authority, prestige…

how different anthropologists research (5)
1. preparation
2. Use of Multifaceted Strategies for Gathering and Reporting Data
3. mapping
4. skills and perspectives
5. analysis

preparation
Literature Reviews, Grant Funding, IRB Approved, Subject Informed Consent

Use of Multifaceted Strategies for Gathering and Reporting Data (5)
1. Quantitative and Qualitative Data
2. Field Notes and Writing Ethnography with “Thick Description”
3. Formal and Informal Interviews
4. Use of Key informants
5. Network Analysis

19th century research
assuming things to be true and making questions based on truth .. everyone went rhough same stages

20th century
realize this was a science and anthro is a social science

mapping
A cultural map of the built environment.
ex: how is a village set up? gives cues to values, where people live and why?

skills and perspectives
1. Personal – determination, trustworthiness, patience …
2. Language, analytical training, Variable Writing, area specialty knowledge development

network analysis
how people come otgether in certain situations

When did anthropology arise as a scientific discipline?
the mid-1800s

anthropology in mid-1800s
Anthropology arose in the mid-1800s as breakthroughs in transportation and communication led scholars to ask questions about similarities and differences between the humans they encountered

Which of the following is most likely to be studied by an anthropologist?
how minority residents of a small town react to discriminatory policies by working together

where are anthropologists most likely to study
often, though not always, found studying marginalized groups of individuals in small-scale communities. They are far less likely to analyze broad trends or attitudes across entire nations or continents

what do anthropologists focus on
humans

where do anthropologists start their research
people in their local communities

Cultural Relativism used how
Anthropologists utilize Cultural Relativism to counter, their own potential ethnocentrism by acknowledging and separating personal cultural notions from evaluative processes

what is Cultural Relativism (4)
Team Work
Interdisciplinary Research
Multi-sited Research
Peer Reviews

Which of the following do anthropologists believe to be true?
There are no longer any undiscovered, isolated groups of humans.

what makes anthropologists believe there are no more isolated groups
Technological changes such as enhanced transportation and communication ability and the advent of global positioning systems (GPS)

Augusto the farmer encounters several bones while plowing his field and wants to know if the bones are human. Which type of anthropologist should he call?
physical anthropologist

physical anthropologist
study human physical forms, past and present. Physical anthropologists are often called upon by local law enforcement agencies to identify discovered bone

Anil is an anthropologist who studies how words transmitted via social media have been used both to resist and to uphold power during recent revolutionary periods in Libya, Egypt, and the Sudan. Anil would most likely classify himself as a(n):
linguistic anthropologist

linguistic anthropologist
Linguistic anthropology involves the study of human language in the past
and the present

April is excited to see a display of arrowheads and other stone tools in a local museum. She wants to learn more about some of the tools. Which type of anthropologist should she contact?
archaeologist

archaeologist
Archaeologists excavate and analyze material remains left behind by humans

A company is interested in building a new factory in Bolivia and wants to know how to ensure positive interactions between workers and management. Which type of anthropologist should the company contact?
cultural anthropologist

cultural anthropologist
ultural anthropology is the study of people’s everyday lives and their
communities—their behaviors, beliefs, and institutions.”

where can cultutural anthropologists be found
Cultural anthropologists can be found in many positions in and outside of academia, including work in the business sector

Ana has started a project comparing ethnographic data about educational techniques in Lesotho to data about educational techniques in New York City. This process is known as:
Correct!
ethnology

ethnology
Cultural anthropologists analyze and compare ethnographic data across cultures in a process called ethnology.

globalization quiz
“the worldwide intensification of interactions and the increased movement of money, people, goods, and ideas within and across national borders

how has globalization transformed
the humans that anthropologists study are no longer isolated in specific cultural “bubbles” free from the influence of other societies, but rather are affected in multiple ways by ideas and products from other cultures.

Which key dynamic of globalization is at work when Andre sends a text message and becomes concerned when he does not receive an immediate response?
time-space compression

time-space compression
a theory that considers the role of new communication and transportation technologies in speeding up our senses of time and place. Rapid communication and global travel are key components of globalization.

A company that used to be based solely in the United States now has factories in the United States plus Mexico, Guatemala, and Indonesia. Which key dynamic of globalization is at work in this example?
flexible accumulation

flexible accumulation
llows companies to be globally flexible in how they accumulate profits. Global corporate expansion and outsourcing are important elements of the contemporary global economy

Three Rules of Anthropological Research
Do No Harm
Obtain Informed Consent
Ensure Anonymity

A hundred years ago in the United States, most college-age adults envisioned living and working near the town where they grew up. Today, many more college-age adults envision living and working in a location away from the town where they grew up. Which key dynamic of globalization best explains this phenomenon?
increasing migration

increasing migration
Migration as a result of globalization can occur between countries or within a country. Enhanced communication and transportation technologies associated with globalization have made it possible to visit and communicate with family and friends from greater distances, therefore making it easier for individuals to pursue lives farther away from family and friends.;

A hydroelectric dam is built in Haiti to provide electric power to those who can afford it. The Haitian citizens who had lived in the valley where the dam is built are relocated to a mountainous location that makes it very difficult for them to make a living sufficient to afford electricity. Which key dynamic of globalization does this story best illustrate?
uneven development

uneven development quiz
While globalization has been beneficial to many humans, those benefits have not been equally spread throughout the human population. Some of the benefits of globalization have come at the expense of others. Uneven development is the key dynamic of globalization that refers to this concept

Scientists predict what change in global temperatures by the year 2100?
an increase of 2.5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit

Which of the following attributes makes anthropology unique among the sciences?
1. Anthropology is global in scope.
2. Anthropologists study both people and the structures of power
3. Anthropologists believe that all humans are connected.

Anthropology is described as a “holistic” field. This means that (3)
1. anthropology studies the whole picture of human life.
2. anthropology studies humans in all places.
3. anthropology studies humans across all time periods.

holism
refers to anthropology’s commitment to look at the whole picture of human life across space and time

Participant observation
a technique within cultural anthropology that requires living and/or working with people consistently over a long period of time in order to better understand their beliefs and actions

Anthropology began with the study of largely isolated small-scale communities. How has globalization changed anthropology? (2)
1. Anthropologists focus more on how cultures change over time.
2. Concepts of geographic borders separating cultures are less important than they once were, resulting in multi-sited ethnographies.

fossil remains of human ancestors focus
physical anthropology

patterns of speech in different social situations focus
linguistic anthropology

material remains left behind by humans (e.g. arrowheads) focus
archaeology

interactions between different residents of the same neighborhood focus
cultural anthropology

paleoanthropology
comparing fossilized 200,000-year-old primate remains to modern human anatomy

historic archaeology
cataloguing artifacts discovered in an 1800s shipwreck off the coast of Istanbul

prehistoric archaeology
describing the importance of objects found in ancient Native American burial mounds

primatology
observing chimpanzee tool use

soociolinguistics
studying the differences between words students use in the classroom and with friends

descriptive linguistics
working to convert a spoken language into a written one for the sake of preservation

historic linguistics
analyzing how acronyms used in text messaging have changed common patterns of speech in the United States.

adapting to the natural world ex (2)
1. use of air conditioning to stay cool in hot weather
2. use of sunscreen to avoid sunburn

shaping the natural world exmples
1. planting trees in urban areas to provide cooling shade
2. removing trees to create fields for growing cotton that can be turned into clothing used to avoid sunburn

Franz Boas (1858-1942) 2 focuses
american historical particularism and cultural relativisim

franz: American Historical Particularism
which argues to understand a culture you needed to learn about its particular (i.e. unique) history

franz: cultural relaticism
states all cultures are equal to one another and can only be judged by their own merits.

franz studies
studied families and seeing if things we congenital, people were healthier than parent genereation if they had access to better living conditions

margaret meas
first to publish on public anthropology

Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)
The Father of Fieldwork (Longitudinal Ethnography)- need to be there physically to understand what is going on or else are looking at things from your point of view

Annette Weiner (1933-1997):
Feminism and Reflexivity
The lesson came when Annette Weiner returned to the Trobriand Islands to study the same culture as Malinowski had but saw it from a woman’s point of view

Evans-Pritchard (1902-1973)
British Structural Functionalism
a scientific approach to the study of culture by examining how different structures within a culture functioned and looked at kinship, polititcal, marriage

problem with Evans-Pritchard (1902-1973)
he was seeing it from a mans point of view

Clifford Geertz (1926-2006
“interpretivist approach.” Geertz argued for “Thick Descriptions” detailed descriptions and careful observation

“interpretivist approach.”
Culture and Meaning – There are many layers of meaning found within a culture to understand it.

julian steward (1902-1972)
ethnographic fieldwork rook a new turn with the publication of “THE PEOPLE OF PUERTO RICO”

2 major developments in anthro bc of julian stweard
1. an anthropological study of already well known culture
2. team effort, rather than that of a solidary anthropologist licing within a foriegn culture

Nancy Scheper-Hugh: Modern Anthropologist (4)
Fieldwork Begins with People
Fieldwork Shapes the Anthropologist
Fieldwork as a Social Science and as Art
Fieldwork Informs Daily Life

nancy scheper-hugh approach
sythentic theoretical & globalized approach

Globalized Approach (4)
1. Multi-sited work across the globe
2. Continue contact with subjects after she leaved the field
3. Cumulative periods of research
4. Analyzes power relations in her work

What sub-interest of anthropology is likely to study such a cultural phenomenon as Transplant Tourism?
Medical anthropologist
Anthropology of Tourism
Anthropology of Labor and Economics

Which of the following individuals was among the earliest anthropologists who sought to organize vast quantities of data about the diversity of world cultures that were being accumulated via colonial and missionary enterprises?
henry morgan

Which of the following terms refers to the process of learning culture?
enculturation

how is culture learned and taught
All humans begin learning culture from birth as we observe and interact with the world around us

Contemporary debates about privacy in American society post-9/11 are fundamentally debates about which of the following?
cultural values

how is culture symbolic and material
Cultures promote and cultivate a core set of values—fundamental beliefs about what is important, what makes a good life, and what is true, right, and beautiful

The handshake as a form of greeting in the United States is an example of a:
cultural symbol

advances in transportation technology via seafaring allowed Europeans to travel farther and faster, thus seeing more of the diversity of the world’s people. This resulted in the creation of the concept of different “races” of humans. This concept of race as signifying human difference is best described by which term?
mental map of reality

mental maps and classifying reality
Mental maps allow us to classify reality; then to assign meaning to what has been classified.

Bertram marries someone from outside his cultural group. Which anthropological term best applies to this situation?
exogamy

exogamy
Exogamy is marriage outside of one’s own group

Bertha likes to eat dinner at 5 p.m. She travels to Italy and decides she doesn’t like the country because restaurants tend to open for dinner at 7 p.m. or later. Bertha is practicing:
ethnocentrism

ethnocentrism
the belief that one’s own culture or way of life is normal, natural, or even superior, and the tendency to use one’s own culture to evaluate and judge the cultural ideas and practices of others

unilineal cultural evolution
The suggestion that all cultures progress through a similar set of stages is no longer accepted in contemporary anthropology.

unilineal cultural evolution today
theory is no longer accepted, but represents an early effort to categorize human societies.

historical particularism.
Franz Boas believed that cultures develop in different ways because of the unique and complex sets of issues and situations that members of the cultural group face over time.

structural functionalism.
The belief that culture is held together by a series of important elements such as economy, education, religion, kinship, and politics that all serve to maintain societal equilibrium

how did Structural functionalists purposefully ignored the influence of outside factors
focusing instead on how societal “structures” such as economy, religion, etc. worked together. This type of focus, they argued, would yield better insight into the functioning of human societies

interpretivist approach
sees culture as a symbolic system of deep meaning

Interpretivists such as Clifford Geertz have argued what
we need to understand the multiple layers of meaning revealed by the simplest of actions, such as differences between winking and twitching of the eye, in order to fully understand human culture.

how are cultures viewd by interpretivists
To the interpretivist, every cultural action can be viewed as a symbol of deeper meaning

language
a system of communication that uses symbols – such as words, sounds, and gestures – organized according to certain rules, to convey any kind of information

There is evidence that minority residents of Anytown have less access to resources such as strong schools, libraries, and recreational centers than their majority counterparts.
stratification

stratification
the uneven distribution of resources and privileges among participants in a group or culture

While material power such as coercion and brute force were tools used by the Nazi regime, the creation of cultural agreement about the “dangers” of populations such as the Jews, Roma, and others was what ultimately allowed the horrors of the Holocaust to take place. This cultural agreement is known as:
hegemony

hegemony def
[t]he ability of a dominant group to create consent and agreement within a population without the use or threat of force

agency
The ability of individuals and/or groups “to contest cultural norms, values, mental maps of reality, symbols, institutions, and structures of power”

what allows humans to challenge power
agency

nature
The belief that cultural patterns are determined by our genetic makeup

Descriptive Linguistics
The study of the sounds and methods of construction used by a language .Linguistics, anthropologists work to describe the essential elements and rules of a particular language.

Bernice spends time each day reading online news reports from several different news agencies around the world. As a result, she becomes aware of multiple ideas and perspectives, incorporating these into her own outlook and actions. This is an example of which of the following terms?
cosmopolitanism

cosmopolitanism
Cosmopolitanism is a very broad, sometimes global, outlook, rather than a limited, local one—an outlook that combines both universality and difference

Americans tend to drive on the right side of the road. This is an example of a:
cultural norm

norms are
ideas or rules about how people should behave in particular
situations or toward certain other people—what is considered ‘normal’ and appropriate behavior

what is language
not just a sound, it is physical

Which of the following can be considered a culture? (3)
1. fans of sport team
2. students at college or university
3. citizens of a nation

Which of the following attributes are associated with culture? (3)
1. Culture is constantly changing.
2. Core cultural beliefs are often challenged
3. the human capacity for sharing and learning culture is unique among animal species.

Which of the following are examples of cultural relativism (3)
1. attempts to understand native feasting behavior in its local context
2. attempts to comprehend the motives behind the 9/11 attacks
3. attempts to make sense of shared ritual behavior that is biologically harmful, such as scarification rituals or drug-induced trances

cultural relativism call for what
suspension of judgment while attempting to understand a group’s beliefs and practices within their own cultural context.

Which of the following are listed in your chapter as ways in which globalization is transforming culture? (3)
1. homogenization
2. two-way transference of culture through migration
3. increased cosmopolitanism

ex: You arrive at a red, eight-sided sign when driving your car, and know that the sign is suggesting that you stop.
symbol

ex:Some, but not all, cultures participate in daylight savings time.
mental map

ex: There are rules governing when to kiss someone.
norm

ex:Freedom of religion is a cornerstone of American society.
value

Boas and his students rapidly gathered ethnographic material from Native American cultures so that we could learn as much as possible about them before they disappeared.
salvage ethnography.

primate communication
similar to humans

salvage ethnography.
an early form of fieldwork was utilized in response to concerns about rapidly disappearing Native American cultures. “These early projects…defined a continuing characteristic of American anthropology [ — ] a combined focus on culture, biology, artifacts, and language that today we call the four-field approach.”

Carlos is an anthropologist who wants to learn more about American college student culture. He decided to enroll in a college, take classes, live in a dorm, and interact with students. This ethnographic technique is best known as:
participant observation.

participant observation.
a hallmark of ethnographic research wherein the anthropologist not only observes the lives of those he studies, but actively participates in the cultural behaviors and rituals he observes. This participation affords an improved understanding of actions and their motivations.

Ethnographies about Puerto Rican culture written by Julian Steward and Sydney Mintz are important to the history of anthropological research because they:
study how modern societies integrate into the modern world system.

Work by Steward, Mintz, and Eric Wolf was pioneering in what way
transitioned anthropologists away from isolated depictions of small-scale cultural groups into examinations of how such groups are affected by, and interact with, the rest of the world.;

Anthropological descriptions of cultural groups often include discussions of the role of the anthropologist herself in conducting the research. This provides important context to the reader, and is a concept known as:
reflexivity.

reflexivity.
a critical self-examination of the role of the anthropologist and an awareness that who one is affects what one finds out

Claudia is frustrated because, having just arrived at her field site, she is having a hard time convincing people to sit down for an interview with her. What words of encouragement would be most appropriate to offer?
“Don’t worry, you just haven’t had time to establish rapport.

rapport
relationships of trust and familiarity with members of the community we study

You’ve just spent five hours engaged in participant observation of a ritual feast and dancing in your study community. How should you record your observations?
Write detailed field notes as soon as possible.

Charles is interested in studying access to paved sidewalks, bike paths, and jogging trails as a means of encouraging fitness in his study community. To aid his research, he creates a map of the study community’s:
built environment.

built environtment
the intentionally designed features of human settlement, including buildings, transportation and public service infrastructure, and public spaces.

zeros
elements of a story that are not told or seen, or key details omitted from a conversation-conversational pauses or things unsaid by respondents can convey important meaning to the anthropologis

The process of fieldwork alters the character of:
both the anthropologist and the study community.

The concept of mutual transformation
refers to the fact that all fieldwork necessarily alters both the study community and the anthropologist. Openness to this mutual transformation leads to more successful fieldwork experiences

Chan has started a project comparing ethnographic data about health care practices from a village in Mozambique to data about similar techniques in rural Kentucky. This process is known as:
ethnology

ethnology def
he analysis and comparison of ethnographic data across cultures.”

Which statement is at the core of the American Anthropological Association’s statement on ethics?
do no harm

tecniques that insure “do no harm” holds true
Techniques such as anonymity/confidentiality and informed consent are often used to ensure that our work does not harm our respondents

Which of the following statements about fieldwork are correct? (3)
1. Fieldwork begins with people.
2. Fieldwork shapes the anthropologist.
3. Fieldwork can be considered both social science and art.

Which of the following statements about early anthropological investigations are accurate? (2)
1. Much early anthropology did not involve fieldwork, relying instead on others’ written accounts.
2. The roots of anthropological fieldwork lie in the globalization of the late 1800s.

Which of the following should you do prior to beginning anthropological fieldwork?
1.learn the local language
2. assemble the anthropologist’s toolkit
3. literature review

when should kinship analysis be performed
n the field, as opposed to prior to fieldwork

Curtis wants to study how teachers in an urban high school feel about administrators such as the principal and superintendent. He wants to use a hidden camera in the teachers’ lounge to capture teacher comments, then, in his report, to describe how these comments differ between teachers in different disciplines such as math, English, etc. Which of the following statements would apply to this scenario
1. This study is not ethical because there is no plan for obtaining informed consent.
Correct!
2. This study is not ethical because listing teacher comments according to discipline fails to preserve anonymity.

margaret mead in ethnography
used fieldwork to engage in public debates in the United States

EE Evans in ethnography
synchronic approach sought to isolate variables

franz boas in ethnography
four-field approach, salvage ethnography

bronislaw in ethnography
participant observation

qualitative data ex
1. text of an interview with a local director of economic development
2. field notes recorded during participant observation

quantitative data ex
1. ethnic composition of a community, by percentage
2. average community income levels, by block

survey
can gather quantitative data and reach large numbers of people quickly

social network
focuses on power relationships in a community by looking at who people turn to in times of need

interview
a conversation wherein a respondent is asked a specific set of questions

life history
seeks to understand how a culture has changed over the span of one person’s life

kinship analysis
examines genealogies to identify power relationships

tone and style
The anthropologist focuses the words she uses on a specific audience—whether other anthropologists or the people she studies.

polyvocality
People who hold opinions on multiple sides of a key cultural issue are quoted.

relfexivity
The anthropologist includes his own reflection on the process of completing the fieldwork.

ethnographic a…
Early in the ethnography, the anthropologist discusses the preparation and methods involved in his fieldwork.

ASL studies clues to biological roots to language/speech.
KoKo’s use of displacement only regarding things already experienced productivity lacked novelty.

Apes Lack physiology and genetics
Structure of Facial and Skull musculature, vocal cords. mouth/tongue, and brain.

FOX P2 gene
gene that causes inability to speak

Whats sets human language apart from chimps
abstract through and symbolic elements- emotins, inventions, things that are not present

how is human language flexible
High levels of “productivity.” uses established structures, sounds can be combined in novel forms to meet new challenges.

noam chomsky and language
argues that humans share a similar language ability and thus, ways of thinking.

is language hardwired into your brain
yes

are all human languages similar
yes

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
hypothesis holds that different languages (sometimes even on the level of dialect) create different ways of thinking.

how do people form & interpret messages
through mental maps

linguistic anthropology
studies the origins and uses of human language

How many languages are currently in use in the world?
mearly 7,000

Dumbledore, a pet Doberman, barks three times every day when the mail carrier comes by the house. Which of the following terms is most applicable to the dog’s communication?
call system

call system
sounds and gestures that are prompted by environmental stimuli

descriptive linguistics quiz
the study of the sounds, symbols, and gestures of a language, and their combination into forms that communicate meaning

how does descriptive linguistics break down language
into individual parts

Which of the following would be considered paralanguage
a guttural sound, such as a scream

Paralanguage
an extensive set of noises (such as laughs, cries, sighs, yells) and tones of voice that convey significant information about the speaker

Which of the following is suggested by the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
Different languages create different ways of thinking.

You’ve decided to create a list of all of the words for names, events, and ideas that exist in the Palauan language. Which of the following are you creating?
lexicon

lexicon
all the words for names, ideas, and events that make up a language’s dictionary.

sociolinguistics
the study of the ways in which culture shapes language and language shapes culture

sociolinguistics examines what
how language intersects with power and cultural attributes such as class, gender, race, and occupation

Terms such as participant observation, ethnography, and cultural relativism are part of the anthropologist’s:
focal vocabulary

focal vocabulary
words and terminology that develop with particular sophistication to describe the unique cultural realities experienced by a group of people.

Which of the theories below sees power differentials between males and females in a society as a foundation for gender-based differences in language?
dominance model

dominance model posts that
language demonstrates and maintains gender-based power differentials in society

difference model
looks to childhood patterns of play and interaction as a source of gender-based differences in languag

Writing assignments in college courses give students opportunities to practice writing in an academic tone. This tone is considered a reflection of the prestige language in vogue in society at a given time. It is also very different from the language you’d use when conversing with others at a party or via text message. What term best describes your ability to navigate these different linguistic situations?
code switching

code swiching
switching back and forth between one variation and another according to cultural context

historical linguistics
the study of the development of language over time, including its changes and variations

Historical linguistics traces
origins of language and the human language continuum, and also explores how languages continue to evolve today

digital natives
applies to “a generation of people—including many of you reading this book—born after 1980 who have been raised in the digital age and have spent their entire lives thinking digitally”

Which of the following are examples of dialects?
black english vernacular
southern accent

Which of the following might be considered elements of language?
words
sounds
gestures

Which of the following are associated with at least some nonhuman primates?
productivity
displacement
call system

What types of evidence give us clues about the origins of human language?
1. fossilized brain casts that reveal brain development
2. early art found on cave walls
3. tooks made in a specific way, found over a wide range

Which of the following would be studied via kinesics?
1. a wave hello or goodbye
2. a scowl

kinesics
he study of the relationship between body movements and communication, explores all the facial expressions, gestures, and postures that convey messages with or without words.”

Which of the following are examples of the effects of globalization on language? (3)
1. Language diversity diminishes over time.
2. Language loss is hastened.
3. Endangered languages are being recorded and preserved.

morpheme
smallest units of sound that carry meaning on their own

phoneme
smallest units of sound that make a difference in meaning

grammar
combined set of rules that govern use of a particular language

syntax
rules for forming speech sounds into phrases and sentences