Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, on March 14 1879. His father was Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein. In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where his father and his uncle founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current.
Einstein was a very interesting young child. Einstein was very interested in compasses, and realized that although there was just an empty space inside the compass, something had to be moving the needle. As Einstein grew, he started making model sand constructing small things and became very skilled in mathematics.
early life- education
Einstein, although jewish, attended catholic school for almost all of his elementary days. He quickly showed promise in math and physics, but was not very skilled in other classes, and because of this, failed his entry exam into his first university.
the beginnings- patent office
After graduating from a university that he actually got into, Einstein spent two years trying to find a teaching job, but to no avail. He became a worker at a patent office that mainly worked in electronic patents.
the beginnings- academic career
While Einstein worked in the patent office, he wrote his thesis in 1905, for which he was awarded his PhD by the University of Zurich. In the same year, he published four groundbreaking papers; on the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of matter and energy. Because of these papers, Einstein soon became very famous.
the beginnings- travels and emigration
Because of Einsteins new found fame, He traveled around the globe giving lectures and meeting some of the most influential people of the time. He went to America, Asia, Palestine, and many other places. In 1933, Einstein, being Jewish, decided to emigrate to the United States from Germany. Einstein also learned that he was on a list of assassination targets, and that he had a price on his head.
One of the things that Albert Einstein is most known for is for his involvement in the Manhattan project. In 1938, many people feared that Hitler would build an atomic bomb after word spread that German scientists had split the uranium atom (fission). However, one of Hitlers mistakes was his persecution of Jewish scientists. This persecution resulted in numerous scientists seeking asylum in the United States. One such scientist was Albert Einstein. Einstein, abandoning his belief in pacifism, urged then president Franklin Roosevelt to develop an atomic bomb before Hitler did. Eventually Roosevelt agreed and the United States attempt at building the atomic bomb was codenamed The Manhattan Project.
Einstein was one of the most important scientists employed in the Manhattan project. Einstein, along with almost 200,000 other people went to work trying to make the atomic bomb, in which they succeeded in doing.
Manhattan Project- World war II
On August 6th and August 9th, 1945 two different atomic bombs were dropped in hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan which essentially ended Japans involvement in the second world war.
Annus Mirabilus- Photoelectric effect
As we previously mentioned, in 1905, Albert Einstein wrote 4 important papers that made him a world famous scientist. In the paper on the photoelectric effect, Einstein suggested that light could be thought of as a stream of tiny particles. An earlier scientist had stated that the radiation of light occurred in packets of energy, called quanta. Einstein extended this idea by arguing that light itself consisted of quanta, which were later called photons.
Annus Mirabilus-brownian motion
The brownian motion was a paper about the irregular motion of microscopic particles suspended in a liquid or gas. This paper confirmed the atomic theory of matter.
Annus Mirabilus-special relativity
This paper reconciled Maxwells, another scientists, equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light. Einstein also hypothesized the speed of light as being independent of the frame of reference and an “upper limit” on velocity. In other words, Einstein believed that the speed of light was the fastest thing possible, and because of this, it was almost impossible to gauge.
Annus Mirabilus-matter energy
This last paper discussed the equivalence of matter and energy, E = mc squared, and the existence of “rest energy” and the basis of nuclear energy.
the theory that space and time are relative concepts rather than absolute concepts. Einstein sought to explain situations in which Newtonian physics might fail to deal successfully with phenomena, and in so doing proposed revolutionary changes in human concepts of time, space, and gravity.
Importance- change thoughts
Because of all the experiments and puzzles that Einstein was able to resolve during his years, he truly changed the way that scientists thought about certain things, especially the travel of light and electricity.
Albert Einstein is known as one of the greatest scientists and one of the smartest people that ever lived. Since he was able to figure out so many things that were left in question before him, he is now regarded as the father of modern physics.